Although taxonomists target the remote wild regions to discover new species, taxa lacking a comprehensive and modern systematic treatment may be the new hotspot for biodiversity discovery. The development of molecular systematics integrated with microscopic observation techniques has greatly improved the ability of taxonomists to identify species correctly. Vittaria centrochinensis Ching ex J.F. Cheng, regarded as a synonym of Haplopteris fudzinoi (Makino) E.H.Crane, remained hidden from the eyes of fern taxonomists for more than 20 years. Herein, we collected several population samples of V. centrochinensis by performing molecular phylogenetic analysis of five cpDNA regions (rbcL, atpA, matK, ndhF, and trnL-trnF) and through micromophological observation of specimens which differs from H. fudzinoi by lamina width and exospores. Considering the differences in morphology, geographical range, and genetic distance between these two species, we formally recognized V. centrochinensis as an authentic species and proposed a new combination Haplopteris centrochinensis (Ching ex J.F.Cheng) Y.H.Yan, Z.Y.Wei & X.C.Zhang, comb. nov. Our findings demonstrate that several taxa in synonyms are missing, and nowadays taxonomy should also include re-evaluation of the past taxonomy.