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      Experimental rigs for testing components of advanced industrial applications

      Friction

      Tsinghua University Press

      experimental rigs, tilting pad journal bearings, twin disc machine, gears, gearboxes

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          Abstract

          This paper presents experimental rigs of the Research Centre for the Mechanics of Turbomachinery of the Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering of the University of Pisa. Most of them were designed and constructed to allow investigations of real machine components and to furnish more realistic results than basic tribological test rigs.

          Tilting pad journal bearings, as well as gears and complete gearboxes for advanced industrial applications, can be tested using the rigs described in the paper. A novel test rig with a power rating of approximately 1 MW allows investigations of the static and dynamic characteristics of high-performance tilting pad journal bearings for turbomachinery. A twin disc machine and closed loop gear test rig are used to investigate the different kinds of wear mechanisms occurring in gears. Functional and durability tests on planetary gearboxes for new turbo-fan engines could be performed using another novel large test rig. A circulating power configuration was adopted for most of the rigs so that only the power needed to cover the friction losses has to be supplied, while the circulating power can be more than 20 times higher. All the test rigs include very complex load applications and lubrication plants, as well as dedicated control and data acquisition systems.

          The rigs and related plants were designed and constructed through strong and fruitful collaborations between the university and some large and small–medium companies. Despite some limitations in the publication of the results as a result of the industrial sensitivity of the data, the synergy among these different actors was stimulating and fundamental for the realization of new advanced industrial applications.

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          Most cited references 42

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          A Review of Tilting Pad Bearing Theory

          A theoretical basis for static and dynamic operation of tilting pad journal bearings (TPJBs) has evolved over the last 50 years. Originally demonstrated by Lund using the pad assembly method and a classic Reynolds equation solution, the current state of the art includes full thermoelastohydrodynamic solutions of the generalized Reynolds equation that include fluid convective inertia effects, pad motions; and thermal and mechanical deformations of the pads and shaft. The development of TPJB theory is reviewed, emphasizing dynamic modeling. The paper begins with the early analyses of fixed geometry bearings and continues to modern analyses that include pad motion and stiffness and damping effects. The development of thermohydrodynamic, thermoelastohydrodynamic, and bulk-flow analyses is reviewed. The theories of TPJB dynamics, including synchronous and nonsynchronous models, are reviewed. A discussion of temporal inertia effects in tilting pad bearing is considered. Future trends are discussed, and a path for experimental verification is proposed.
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            A Test Apparatus and Facility to Identify the Rotordynamic Coefficients of High-Speed Hydrostatic Bearings

            A facility and apparatus are described which determine stiffness, damping, and added-mass rotordynamic coefficients plus steady-state operating characteristics of high speed hydrostatic journal bearings. The apparatus has a current top speed of 29800 rpm with a bearing diameter of 7.62 cm (3 in.). Purified warm water, 55°C (130°F), is used as a test fluid to achieve elevated Reynolds numbers during operation. The test-fluid pump yields a bearing maximum inlet pressure of 6.9 Mpa (1000 psi). Static load on the bearing is independently controlled and measured. Orthogonally mounted external shakers are used to excite the test stator in the direction of, and perpendicular to, the static load. The apparatus can independently calculate all rotordynamic coefficients at a given operating condition.
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              Impact of high pressure and shear thinning on journal bearing friction

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Tsinghua Science and Technology
                Friction
                Tsinghua University Press (Xueyuan Building, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China )
                2223-7690
                05 February 2019
                : 07
                : 01
                : 59-73 (pp. )
                Affiliations
                Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino, Pisa 56126, Italy
                Author notes
                * Corresponding author: Enrico CIULLI, E-mail: ciulli@ 123456ing.unipi.it

                Enrico CIULLI. He received his Italian “Laurea” in mechanical engineering cum Laude from the University of Pisa in 1984. He joined the University of Pisa in 1986 where he is currently a professor of applied mechanics. He was chairman of the PhD Course in mechanical engineering of the University of Pisa, president of the Italian Association of Tribology, and chairman of the Program Committee of the 5 th World Tribology Congress (WTC V, Torino, 2013). His research areas cover both basic and applied tribology with particular focus on experimental elastohydrodynamic and hydrodynamic lubrication, friction, and wear.

                Article
                2223-7690-07-01-59
                10.1007/s40544-017-0197-z

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Page count
                Figures: 20, Tables: 3, References: 52, Pages: 15
                Categories
                Research Article

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