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      The Past, Present and Future of Cyber-Physical Systems: A Focus on Models

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          Abstract

          This paper is about better engineering of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) through better models. Deterministic models have historically proven extremely useful and arguably form the kingpin of the industrial revolution and the digital and information technology revolutions. Key deterministic models that have proven successful include differential equations, synchronous digital logic and single-threaded imperative programs. Cyber-physical systems, however, combine these models in such a way that determinism is not preserved. Two projects show that deterministic CPS models with faithful physical realizations are possible and practical. The first project is PRET, which shows that the timing precision of synchronous digital logic can be practically made available at the software level of abstraction. The second project is Ptides (programming temporally-integrated distributed embedded systems), which shows that deterministic models for distributed cyber-physical systems have practical faithful realizations. These projects are existence proofs that deterministic CPS models are possible and practical.

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          Most cited references 72

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            Misconceptions about real-time computing: a serious problem for next-generation systems

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              The Problem with Threads

               E.A. Lee (2006)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                MDPI
                1424-8220
                March 2015
                26 February 2015
                : 15
                : 3
                : 4837-4869
                Affiliations
                EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1770, USA; E-Mail: eal@ 123456eecs.berkeley.edu ; Tel.: +1-510-643-3728
                Article
                sensors-15-04837
                10.3390/s150304837
                4435108
                25730486
                © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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