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      A retrospective drug use evaluation of cabergoline for lactation inhibition at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Qatar

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          Breastfeeding is considered as gold standard for infant nutrition and should be interrupted only when a compelling indication exists. Certain medical conditions such as abortion, stillbirth, HIV infection, or infant galactosemia and certain medications such as chemotherapy necessitate lactation inhibition to protect the health of mother and infant. Drug use evaluation (DUE) studies are done to explore the current practice in a setting and help to identify areas in which further information and education may be needed by clinicians.


          The aim of this study was to conduct a DUE of cabergoline to assess indications for lactation inhibition, dosage regimen, and its safety.


          A retrospective cross-sectional DUE study was conducted over a period of 4 months from September 1, 2013, till December 31, 2013, at the Women’s Hospital, Qatar. All cabergoline prescriptions written for lactation inhibition within 10 days of delivery or abortion were included in the study. A descriptive data analysis was undertaken.


          Of the 85 patients included, stillbirth (50.6%) was considered as the main reason for lactation inhibition, followed by abortion (27.1%) and neonatal death (12.9%). The remaining 9.4% of the patients had live baby, and the majority of them were prescribed cabergoline for lactation inhibition because their maternal medical conditions required the use of drugs with insufficient safety data (n=6). Seventy-four percent of patients received cabergoline at accurate time and dose. However, 14% of the patients had preexisting hypertensive disorder and 58.3% of them were diagnosed as uncontrolled hypertension.


          The current DUE study found that cabergoline was mainly used to inhibit lactation for patients with stillbirth, abortion, and neonatal death. In mothers who use medications for other medical conditions, benefits and risks of breastfeeding should be carefully balanced before prescribing cabergoline. Current prescribing pattern can be further enhanced through informing health care providers regarding appropriate cabergoline dosage regimen and its safety in patients with uncontrolled hypertension.

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          Most cited references 21

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          The risks of not breastfeeding for mothers and infants.

           Alison Stuebe (2009)
          Health outcomes in developed countries differ substantially for mothers and infants who formula feed compared with those who breastfeed. For infants, not being breastfed is associated with an increased incidence of infectious morbidity, as well as elevated risks of childhood obesity, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, leukemia, and sudden infant death syndrome. For mothers, failure to breastfeed is associated with an increased incidence of premenopausal breast cancer, ovarian cancer, retained gestational weight gain, type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, and the metabolic syndrome. Obstetricians are uniquely positioned to counsel mothers about the health impact of breastfeeding and to ensure that mothers and infants receive appropriate, evidence-based care, starting at birth.
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            A comparative review of the tolerability profiles of dopamine agonists in the treatment of hyperprolactinaemia and inhibition of lactation.

             J. Webster (1996)
            Dopamine agonists are the treatment of choice for the majority of patients with hyperprolactinaemic disorders. Although characterised by a relatively high incidence of adverse effects, most commonly gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological, these are usually mild and transient, and can be minimised by starting with a low dose and gradually increasing it, or taking the drug with food or while recumbent. Bromocriptine, introduced in 1971, is the reference preparation against which newer dopamine agonists are compared. It is effective in suppressing prolactin secretion, reducing prolactinoma size and restoring gonadal function. However, up to 12% of patients cannot tolerate the drug at therapeutic dosages. Cabergoline, a long-acting dopamine agonist administered once or twice weekly, has been shown to be significantly more effective than bromocriptine in suppressing prolactin secretion in hyperprolactinaemic patients, and is better tolerated, particularly in terms of nausea and vomiting. In suppressing physiological lactation, cabergoline is at least as effective as bromocriptine, and is associated with significantly fewer rebound symptoms and adverse effects. Quinagolide is a non-ergot dopamine agonist that is administered once daily. It has similar efficacy to bromocriptine, but is probably less effective than cabergoline in hyperprolactinaemic patients; it is not licensed for suppression of lactation. It is better tolerated than twice-daily bromocriptine, but is probably inferior to cabergoline in this regard. Neither bromocriptine, cabergoline nor quinagolide has been associated with any detrimental effect on pregnancy or fetal development. However, experience with bromocriptine is far more extensive; thus, for women requiring treatment for subfertility, this drug remains the treatment of choice in most centres, with cabergoline and quinagolide as acceptable second-line drugs in bromocriptine-intolerant patients. In hyperprolactinaemic men, hyperprolactinaemic women not wishing to become pregnant, and for suppression of physiological lactation, cabergoline is recommended as first-line treatment.
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              Reasons why women do not initiate breastfeeding: A southeastern state study.

              Despite the increase in breastfeeding initiation and duration in the United States, only five states have met the three Healthy People 2010 breastfeeding objectives. Our objectives are to study women's self-reported reasons for not initiating breastfeeding and to determine whether these reasons vary by race/ethnicity, and other maternal and hospital support characteristics. Data are from the 2000-2003 Arkansas Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, restricting the sample to women who did not initiate breastfeeding (unweighted n=2,917). Reasons for not initiating breastfeeding are characterized as individual reasons, household responsibilities, and circumstances. Analyses include the chi(2) test and multiple logistic regression. About 38% of Arkansas mothers of live singletons did not initiate breastfeeding. There was a greater representation of non-Hispanic Blacks among those who did not initiate breastfeeding (32%) than among those who initiated breastfeeding (9.9%). Among those who never breastfed, individual reasons were most frequently cited for noninitiation (63.0%). After adjusting for covariates, Hispanics had three times the odds of citing circumstances than Whites (odds ratio [OR], 3.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-7.18). Women who indicated that the hospital staff did not teach them how to breastfeed had more than two times greater odds of citing individual reasons (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.30-3.91) or reasons related to household responsibilities (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.19-4.36) as compared with women who indicated they were taught. Findings suggest the need for targeting breastfeeding interventions to different subgroups of women. In addition, there are implications for policy particularly regarding breastfeeding support in hospitals.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                09 February 2016
                : 12
                : 155-160
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacy, Women’s Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK
                [3 ]Department of Pediatrics, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar
                [4 ]Clinical Support Service Unit, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Doua AlSaad, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Women’s Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, PO Box 3050, Doha, Qatar, Tel +974 4439 3340, Fax +974 4439 3867, Email alsaad.doua@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2016 AlSaad et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research


                lactation inhibition, cabergoline, drug use evaluation, breastfeeding inhibition


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