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      Comparative cytological and histological assessment of 828 primary soft tissue and bone lesions, and proposal for a system for reporting soft tissue cytopathology

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology and core needle biopsies (CNBs) in a series of primary soft tissue and bone lesions and to test a possible system for reporting results of FNA cytology of soft tissue lesion.

          Methods

          This retrospective study encompassed 828 primary soft tissue and bone lesions, analysed with FNA, CNB and/or surgical specimen in order to perform sensitivity/specificity as well as accuracy analyses. The series was then used to test a system for reporting soft tissue cytopathology with six categories and the risk of malignancy in each category was calculated.

          Results

          With a malignant diagnosis defined as positive test result, FNA and CNB analysis showed sensitivity of 87% and 94%, respectively, and specificity of 89% and 95%, respectively. FNA and CNB analyses identified the correct histopathological entity of the examined lesion in 55% and 66%, respectively. The risk of malignancy within the tested categories was non‐diagnostic 42%, non‐neoplastic 0%, atypia of unknown significance 46%, neoplasm benign 3%, neoplasm of unknown malignant potential 27%, suspicious for malignancy 72% and malignant 97%.

          Conclusion

          FNA cytology is a suitable tool to determine the malignant potential of a sampled soft tissue/bone lesion but is inferior to CNB in defining the correct entity. A standardised reporting system might improve the clinical management of patients with soft tissue tumours examined primarily by FNA cytology.

          Abstract

          The study evaluated the diagnostic utility of fine needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsies in 828 primary soft tissue and bone lesions. In a second step, a possible system for reporting results of fine needle aspiration cytology of soft tissue lesion was tested.

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          Most cited references33

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          Rare cancers are not so rare: the rare cancer burden in Europe.

          Epidemiologic information on rare cancers is scarce. The project Surveillance of Rare Cancers in Europe (RARECARE) provides estimates of the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare cancers in Europe based on a new and comprehensive list of these diseases. RARECARE analysed population-based cancer registry (CR) data on European patients diagnosed from 1988 to 2002, with vital status information available up to 31st December 2003 (latest date for which most CRs had verified data). The mean population covered was about 162,000,000. Cancer incidence and survival rates for 1995-2002 and prevalence at 1st January 2003 were estimated. Based on the RARECARE definition (incidence <6/100,000/year), the estimated annual incidence rate of all rare cancers in Europe was about 108 per 100,000, corresponding to 541,000 new diagnoses annually or 22% of all cancer diagnoses. Five-year relative survival was on average worse for rare cancers (47%) than common cancers (65%). About 4,300,000 patients are living today in the European Union with a diagnosis of a rare cancer, 24% of the total cancer prevalence. Our estimates of the rare cancer burden in Europe provide the first indication of the size of the public health problem due to these diseases and constitute a useful base for further research. Centres of excellence for rare cancers or groups of rare cancers could provide the necessary organisational structure and critical mass for carrying out clinical trials and developing alternative approaches to clinical experimentation for these cancers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            A comparison of fine-needle aspiration, core biopsy, and surgical biopsy in the diagnosis of extremity soft tissue masses.

            Biopsy tissue can be obtained through a fine needle, a wider coring needle, or through an open surgical incision. Though much literature exists regarding the diagnostic yield of these techniques individually, none compare accuracy of diagnosis in the same mass. We asked how the diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration, core biopsy, and open surgical biopsy compare in regard to identifying malignancy, establishing the exact diagnosis, and guiding the appropriate treatment of soft tissue masses. We prospectively studied 57 patients with palpable extremity soft tissue masses, performing fine-needle aspiration, followed by core biopsy, followed by surgical biopsy of the same mass. Open surgical biopsy was 100% accurate on all accounts. With regard to determining malignancy, fine-needle aspiration and core biopsy had 79.17% and 79.2% sensitivity, 72.7% and 81.8% specificity, 67.9% and 76% positive predictive value, 82.8% and 84.4% negative predictive value, and an overall accuracy of 75.4% and 80.7%, respectively. In regard to determining exact diagnosis, fine-needle aspiration had a 33.3% accuracy and core biopsy had a 45.6% accuracy. With regard to eventual treatment, fine-needle aspiration was 38.6% accurate and core biopsy was 49.1% accurate. In soft tissue mass diagnosis, core biopsy is more accurate than fine-needle aspiration on all accounts, and open biopsy is more accurate than both in determining malignancy, establishing the exact diagnosis, and the guiding appropriate treatment.
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              Diagnostic accuracy and charge-savings of outpatient core needle biopsy compared with open biopsy of musculoskeletal tumors.

              We performed a prospective study of sixty-two patients who were managed with a closed core needle biopsy in an outpatient clinic for a soft-tissue mass or a bone tumor with soft-tissue extension between August 1, 1992, and June 1, 1994. Eight (13 percent) of the closed core needle biopsies yielded no neoplastic tissue. Two needle biopsies (3 percent), which were of myxomatous masses, did not allow distinction between a benign and a malignant neoplasm; both masses were extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas. Additionally, the histological grade of four resected specimens (6 percent) differed from that determined with the closed needle biopsy. The diagnostic accuracy of the closed needle biopsies was 84 percent (fifty-two of sixty-two). All ten diagnostic errors involved soft-tissue tumors. A retrospective study of a similar cohort of patients who had open biopsy in an outpatient operating room by the same surgeon in a contemporary period in the same institution and with analysis by the same pathologist, revealed a diagnostic accuracy of 96 percent (forty-eight of fifty). The hospital charges for the closed core needle biopsy were $1106, compared with $7234 for the open biopsy. We concluded that core needle biopsy can be performed in an outpatient clinic with use of local anesthesia and that it is substantially less expensive and more convenient than open biopsy. This technique has an acceptable but definitely lower rate of accuracy compared with open biopsy, especially for soft-tissue tumors, and it should be used only in a small subset of patients (those who have a large soft-tissue mass or a bone tumor with palpable soft-tissue extension). However, given the small size of the tissue sample, the clinician must recognize possible disadvantages, including a non-diagnostic biopsy, an indeterminate biopsy, or a potential error in the histological grade. These problems are much more likely to occur after core needle biopsy of soft-tissue masses. Because of the potential for errors in diagnosis when core needle biopsy is used, the musculoskeletal oncologist must rely on his or her clinical acumen. When a diagnosis is in reasonable doubt, there is no radiographic confirmation, the biopsy shows no tumor cells, or there is a combination of these findings, operative decisions should be made as if no biopsy had been performed. The management of patients who, after core needle biopsy, have a diagnosis of a bone or soft-tissue tumor, is best carried out by an experienced musculoskeletal oncologist working in close collaboration with an experienced musculoskeletal pathologist.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jan.koster@med.lu.se
                Journal
                Cytopathology
                Cytopathology
                10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2303
                CYT
                Cytopathology
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                0956-5507
                1365-2303
                17 October 2020
                January 2021
                : 32
                : 1 ( doiID: 10.1111/cyt.v32.1 )
                : 7-19
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Division of Clinical Genetics Department of Laboratory Medicine Lund University Lund Sweden
                [ 2 ] Division of Laboratory Medicine Department of Clinical Genetics and Pathology Skåne University Hospital Lund Sweden
                [ 3 ] Department of Orthopedics Skåne University Hospital Lund Sweden
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Jan Köster, Department of Clinical Genetics and Pathology, Division of Laboratory Medicine, SE‐221 85 Lund, Sweden.

                Email: jan.koster@ 123456med.lu.se

                Article
                CYT12914
                10.1111/cyt.12914
                7821273
                32926591
                817c7940-3b0a-4e94-932c-2a978ae2d43f
                © 2020 The Authors. Cytopathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 6, Pages: 13, Words: 9526
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Region Skåne , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100009780;
                Categories
                Original Article
                Original Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                January 2021
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.9.6 mode:remove_FC converted:22.01.2021

                Pathology
                biopsy,bone neoplasms,classification,core needle,fine needle,sarcoma,soft tissue neoplasms
                Pathology
                biopsy, bone neoplasms, classification, core needle, fine needle, sarcoma, soft tissue neoplasms

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