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      Propolis Is an Efficient Fungicide and Inhibitor of Biofilm Production by Vaginal Candida albicans

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          Abstract

          Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most common genital infections in women. The therapeutic arsenal remains restricted, and some alternatives to VVC treatment are being studied. The present study evaluated the influence of a propolis extractive solution (PES) on biofilm production by Candida albicans isolated from patients with VVC. Susceptibility testing was used to verify the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PES, with fluconazole and nystatin as controls. The biofilm formation of 29 vaginal isolates of C. albicans and a reference strain that were exposed to PES was evaluated using crystal violet staining. Colony-forming units were evaluated, proteins and carbohydrates of the matrix biofilm were quantified, and scanning electron microscopy was performed. The MIC of PES ranged from 68.35 to 546.87  μg/mL of total phenol content in gallic acid. A concentration of 546.87  μg/mL was able to cause the death of 75.8% of the isolates. PES inhibited biofilm formation by C. albicans from VVC. Besides antifungal activity, PES appears to present important antibiofilm activity on abiotic surfaces, indicating that it may have an additional beneficial effect in the treatment of VVC.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids

          Flavonoids are ubiquitous in photosynthesising cells and are commonly found in fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems, flowers, tea, wine, propolis and honey. For centuries, preparations containing these compounds as the principal physiologically active constituents have been used to treat human diseases. Increasingly, this class of natural products is becoming the subject of anti-infective research, and many groups have isolated and identified the structures of flavonoids possessing antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial activity. Moreover, several groups have demonstrated synergy between active flavonoids as well as between flavonoids and existing chemotherapeutics. Reports of activity in the field of antibacterial flavonoid research are widely conflicting, probably owing to inter- and intra-assay variation in susceptibility testing. However, several high-quality investigations have examined the relationship between flavonoid structure and antibacterial activity and these are in close agreement. In addition, numerous research groups have sought to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of selected flavonoids. The activity of quercetin, for example, has been at least partially attributed to inhibition of DNA gyrase. It has also been proposed that sophoraflavone G and (−)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibit cytoplasmic membrane function, and that licochalcones A and C inhibit energy metabolism. Other flavonoids whose mechanisms of action have been investigated include robinetin, myricetin, apigenin, rutin, galangin, 2,4,2′-trihydroxy-5′-methylchalcone and lonchocarpol A. These compounds represent novel leads, and future studies may allow the development of a pharmacologically acceptable antimicrobial agent or class of agents.
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            Vulvovaginal candidosis.

             Jack D. Sobel (2007)
            Despite therapeutic advances, vulvovaginal candidosis remains a common problem worldwide, affecting all strata of society. Understanding of anti-candida host defence mechanisms in the vagina has developed slowly and, despite a growing list of recognised risk factors, a fundamental grasp of pathogenic mechanisms continues to elude us. The absence of rapid, simple, and inexpensive diagnostic tests continues to result in both overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis of vulvovaginal candidosis. I review the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this infection, and also discuss management strategies.
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              Virulence factors of Candida albicans

              Candidiasis is a common infection of the skin, oral cavity and esophagus, gastrointestinal tract, vagina and vascular system of humans. Although most infections occur in patients who are immunocompromised or debilitated in some other way, the organism most often responsible for disease, Candida albicans, expresses several virulence factors that contribute to pathogenesis. These factors include host recognition biomolecules (adhesins), morphogenesis (the reversible transition between unicellular yeast cells and filamentous, growth forms), secreted aspartyl proteases and phospholipases. Additionally, 'phenotypic switching' is accompanied by changes in antigen expression, colony morphology and tissue affinities in C. albicans and several other Candida spp. Switching might provide cells with a flexibility that results in the adaptation of the organism to the hostile conditions imposed not only by the host but also by the physician treating the infection.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                ECAM
                Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1741-427X
                1741-4288
                2015
                1 March 2015
                1 March 2015
                : 2015
                Affiliations
                1Division of Medical Mycology, Teaching and Research Laboratory in Clinical Analyses, Department of Clinical Analysis of State University of Maringá, Avenida Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR, Brazil
                2Laboratory of Research and Development of Drug Delivery Systems, Department of Pharmacy, State University of Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil
                3Clinical Cytology Laboratory, Department of Clinical Analysis and Biomedicine, State University of Maringá, PR, Brazil
                Author notes
                *Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski: terezinha.svidzinski@ 123456gmail.com

                Academic Editor: Jung-Nien Lai

                Article
                10.1155/2015/287693
                4359870
                Copyright © 2015 Isis Regina Grenier Capoci et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Complementary & Alternative medicine

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