Mutations in the crumbs homologue 1 (CRB1) gene cause a specific form of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) that is designated "RP12" and is characterized by a preserved para-arteriolar retinal pigment epithelium (PPRPE) and by severe loss of vision at age <20 years. Because of the early onset of disease in patients who have RP with PPRPE, we considered CRB1 to be a good candidate gene for Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Mutations were detected in 7 (13%) of 52 patients with LCA from the Netherlands, Germany, and the United States. In addition, CRB1 mutations were detected in five of nine patients who had RP with Coats-like exudative vasculopathy, a relatively rare complication of RP that may progress to partial or total retinal detachment. Given that four of five patients had developed the complication in one eye and that not all siblings with RP have the complication, CRB1 mutations should be considered an important risk factor for the Coats-like reaction, although its development may require additional genetic or environmental factors. Although no clear-cut genotype-phenotype correlation could be established, patients with LCA, which is the most severe retinal dystrophy, carry null alleles more frequently than do patients with RP. Our findings suggest that CRB1 mutations are a frequent cause of LCA and are strongly associated with the development of Coats-like exudative vasculopathy in patients with RP.