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      A fungal phylogeny based on 42 complete genomes derived from supertree and combined gene analysis

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          Abstract

          Background

          To date, most fungal phylogenies have been derived from single gene comparisons, or from concatenated alignments of a small number of genes. The increase in fungal genome sequencing presents an opportunity to reconstruct evolutionary events using entire genomes. As a tool for future comparative, phylogenomic and phylogenetic studies, we used both supertrees and concatenated alignments to infer relationships between 42 species of fungi for which complete genome sequences are available.

          Results

          A dataset of 345,829 genes was extracted from 42 publicly available fungal genomes. Supertree methods were employed to derive phylogenies from 4,805 single gene families. We found that the average consensus supertree method may suffer from long-branch attraction artifacts, while matrix representation with parsimony (MRP) appears to be immune from these. A genome phylogeny was also reconstructed from a concatenated alignment of 153 universally distributed orthologs. Our MRP supertree and concatenated phylogeny are highly congruent. Within the Ascomycota, the sub-phyla Pezizomycotina and Saccharomycotina were resolved. Both phylogenies infer that the Leotiomycetes are the closest sister group to the Sordariomycetes. There is some ambiguity regarding the placement of Stagonospora nodurum, the sole member of the class Dothideomycetes present in the dataset.

          Within the Saccharomycotina, a monophyletic clade containing organisms that translate CTG as serine instead of leucine is evident. There is also strong support for two groups within the CTG clade, one containing the fully sexual species Candida lusitaniae, Candida guilliermondii and Debaryomyces hansenii, and the second group containing Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis and Lodderomyces elongisporus. The second major clade within the Saccharomycotina contains species whose genomes have undergone a whole genome duplication (WGD), and their close relatives. We could not confidently resolve whether Candida glabrata or Saccharomyces castellii lies at the base of the WGD clade.

          Conclusion

          We have constructed robust phylogenies for fungi based on whole genome analysis. Overall, our phylogenies provide strong support for the classification of phyla, sub-phyla, classes and orders. We have resolved the relationship of the classes Leotiomyctes and Sordariomycetes, and have identified two classes within the CTG clade of the Saccharomycotina that may correlate with sexual status.

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          Most cited references71

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          Improved tools for biological sequence comparison.

          We have developed three computer programs for comparisons of protein and DNA sequences. They can be used to search sequence data bases, evaluate similarity scores, and identify periodic structures based on local sequence similarity. The FASTA program is a more sensitive derivative of the FASTP program, which can be used to search protein or DNA sequence data bases and can compare a protein sequence to a DNA sequence data base by translating the DNA data base as it is searched. FASTA includes an additional step in the calculation of the initial pairwise similarity score that allows multiple regions of similarity to be joined to increase the score of related sequences. The RDF2 program can be used to evaluate the significance of similarity scores using a shuffling method that preserves local sequence composition. The LFASTA program can display all the regions of local similarity between two sequences with scores greater than a threshold, using the same scoring parameters and a similar alignment algorithm; these local similarities can be displayed as a "graphic matrix" plot or as individual alignments. In addition, these programs have been generalized to allow comparison of DNA or protein sequences based on a variety of alternative scoring matrices.
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            Neighbor-net: an agglomerative method for the construction of phylogenetic networks.

            We present Neighbor-Net, a distance based method for constructing phylogenetic networks that is based on the Neighbor-Joining (NJ) algorithm of Saitou and Nei. Neighbor-Net provides a snapshot of the data that can guide more detailed analysis. Unlike split decomposition, Neighbor-Net scales well and can quickly produce detailed and informative networks for several hundred taxa. We illustrate the method by reanalyzing three published data sets: a collection of 110 highly recombinant Salmonella multi-locus sequence typing sequences, the 135 "African Eve" human mitochondrial sequences published by Vigilant et al., and a collection of 12 Archeal chaperonin sequences demonstrating strong evidence for gene conversion. Neighbor-Net is available as part of the SplitsTree4 software package.
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              Sequencing and comparison of yeast species to identify genes and regulatory elements.

              Identifying the functional elements encoded in a genome is one of the principal challenges in modern biology. Comparative genomics should offer a powerful, general approach. Here, we present a comparative analysis of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on high-quality draft sequences of three related species (S. paradoxus, S. mikatae and S. bayanus). We first aligned the genomes and characterized their evolution, defining the regions and mechanisms of change. We then developed methods for direct identification of genes and regulatory motifs. The gene analysis yielded a major revision to the yeast gene catalogue, affecting approximately 15% of all genes and reducing the total count by about 500 genes. The motif analysis automatically identified 72 genome-wide elements, including most known regulatory motifs and numerous new motifs. We inferred a putative function for most of these motifs, and provided insights into their combinatorial interactions. The results have implications for genome analysis of diverse organisms, including the human.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMC Evol Biol
                BMC Evolutionary Biology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2148
                2006
                22 November 2006
                : 6
                : 99
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
                [2 ]Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
                Article
                1471-2148-6-99
                10.1186/1471-2148-6-99
                1679813
                17121679
                81b12a59-4023-419f-b9c9-474880ec8ac1
                Copyright © 2006 Fitzpatrick et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 21 July 2006
                : 22 November 2006
                Categories
                Research Article

                Evolutionary Biology
                Evolutionary Biology

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