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      Seasonal changes in the reproductive performance in local cows receiving artificial insemination in the Pursat province of Cambodia


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          The present study aimed to survey seasonal changes in reproductive performance of local cows receiving artificial insemination (AI) in the Pursat province of Cambodia, a tropical country, to investigate if ambient conditions affect the reproductive performance of cows as to better understand the major problems regarding cattle production.


          The number of cows receiving AI, resultant number of calving, and calving rate were analyzed for those receiving the first AI from 2016 to 2017. The year was divided into three seasons: cool/dry (from November to February), hot/dry (from March to June), and wet (from July to October), based on the maximal temperature and rainfall in Pursat, to analyze the relationship between ambient conditions and the reproductive performance of cows. Body condition scores (BCS) and feeding schemes were also analyzed in these seasons.


          The number of cows receiving AI was significantly higher in the cool/dry season than the wet season. The number of calving and calving rate were significantly higher in cows receiving AI in the cool/dry season compared with the hot/dry and wet seasons. The cows showed higher BCSs in the cool/dry season compared to the hot/dry and wet seasons probably due to the seasonal changes in the feeding schemes: these cows grazed on wild grasses in the cool/dry season but fed with a limited amount of grasses and straw in the hot/dry and wet seasons.


          The present study suggests that the low number of cows receiving AI, low number of calving, and low calving rate could be mainly due to poor body condition as a result of the poor feeding schemes during the hot/dry and wet seasons. The improvement of body condition by the refinement of feeding schemes may contribute to an increase in the reproductive performance in cows during the hot/dry and wet seasons in Cambodia.

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          Most cited references28

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          Reproductive loss in high-producing dairy cattle: where will it end?

          M Lucy (2001)
          The dairy industry in the United States has changed dramatically in the last decade. Milk production per cow has increased steadily because of a combination of improved management, better nutrition, and intense genetic selection. Dairy farms are larger, and nearly 30% of the dairy cows in the United States are on farms with 500 or more cows. The shift toward more productive cows and larger herds is associated with a decrease in reproductive efficiency. Cows with the greatest milk production have the highest incidence of infertility, but epidemiological studies suggest that, in addition to milk production, other factors are probably decreasing reproductive efficiency in our dairy herds. The reproductive physiology of dairy cows has changed over the past 50 yr, and physiological adaptations to high milk production may explain part of the reproductive decline. Critical areas for new research include control of the estrous cycle, metabolic effects of lactation on reproduction, mechanisms linking disease to reproduction, and early embryonic mortality. Solving reproductive loss in dairy cows will not be easy because only a small number of research groups study reproduction in postpartum dairy cows. Therefore, the present research base will need to be expanded. For this to occur, research funding must be increased above its current level and a renewed emphasis must be placed on solving the emerging crisis of infertility in dairy cows.
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            A Body Condition Scoring Chart for Holstein Dairy Cows

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              Is Open Access

              The Role of Food and Nutrition System Approaches in Tackling Hidden Hunger

              One of the World’s greatest challenges is to secure sufficient and healthy food for all, and to do so in an environmentally sustainable manner. This review explores the interrelationships of food, health, and environment, and their role in addressing chronic micronutrient deficiencies, also known as “hidden hunger”, affecting over two billion people worldwide. While the complexity and underlying determinants of undernutrition have been well-understood for decades, the scaling of food and nutrition system approaches that combine sustainable agriculture aimed at improved diet diversity and livelihoods have been limited in their development and implementation. However, an integrated system approach to reduce hidden hunger could potentially serve as a sustainable opportunity.

                Author and article information

                Asian-Australas J Anim Sci
                Asian-Australas J Anim Sci
                Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
                Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST)
                December 2020
                12 April 2020
                : 33
                : 12
                : 1922-1929
                [1 ]Asian Satellite Campus in Cambodia, Nagoya University, c/o Royal University of Agriculture, Khan Dangkor, Phnom Penh, P.O. Box 2696, Cambodia
                [2 ]Department of Animal Health and Veterinary Public Health, General Directorate of Animal Health and Production, Khan Meanchey, Phnom Penh, 12352, Cambodia
                [3 ]Asian Satellite Campuses Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8601, Japan
                [4 ]Laboratory of Animal Production Science, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8601, Japan
                [5 ]Laboratory of Animal Reproduction, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8601, Japan
                [6 ]Prekleap National Institute of Agriculture, Khan Chhroychangva, Phnom Penh, 12112, Cambodia
                Author notes

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                [* ]Corresponding Authors: Yoshihisa Uenoyama, Tel: +81-52-789-5870, Fax: +81-52-789-4072, E-mail: uenoyama@ 123456nagoya-u.jp . Vutha Pheng, Tel: +855-12-967-487, E-mail: vutha1@ 123456yahoo.com
                Author information
                Copyright © 2020 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 18 November 2019
                : 15 January 2020
                : 17 March 2020
                Animal Reproduction and Physiology

                artificial insemination,body condition,cambodia,cows,reproductive performance,seasonal changes


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