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      IL-10 control of CD11c + myeloid cells is essential to maintain immune homeostasis in the small and large intestine

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          Although IL-10 promotes a regulatory phenotype of CD11c + dendritic cells and macrophages in vitro, the role of IL-10 signaling in CD11c + cells to maintain intestinal tolerance in vivo remains elusive. To this aim, we generated mice with a CD11c-specific deletion of the IL-10 receptor alpha ( Cd11c creIl10ra fl/fl ). In contrast to the colon, the small intestine of Cd11c creIl10ra fl/fl mice exhibited spontaneous crypt hyperplasia, increased numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes and lamina propria T cells, associated with elevated levels of T cell-derived IFNγ and IL-17A. Whereas naive mucosal T-cell priming was not affected and oral tolerance to ovalbumin was intact, augmented T-cell function in the lamina propria was associated with elevated numbers of locally dividing T cells, expression of T-cell attracting chemokines and reduced T-cell apoptosis. Upon stimulation, intestinal IL-10Rα deficient CD11c + cells exhibited increased activation associated with enhanced IL-6 and TNFα production. Following colonization with Helicobacter hepaticus Cd11c creIl10ra fl/fl mice developed severe large intestinal inflammation characterized by infiltrating T cells and increased levels of Il17a, Ifng, and Il12p40. Altogether these findings demonstrate a critical role of IL-10 signaling in CD11c + cells to control small intestinal immune homeostasis by limiting reactivation of local memory T cells and to protect against Helicobacter hepaticus-induced colitis.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor.

          Interleukin-10 (IL-10), first recognized for its ability to inhibit activation and effector function of T cells, monocytes, and macrophages, is a multifunctional cytokine with diverse effects on most hemopoietic cell types. The principal routine function of IL-10 appears to be to limit and ultimately terminate inflammatory responses. In addition to these activities, IL-10 regulates growth and/or differentiation of B cells, NK cells, cytotoxic and helper T cells, mast cells, granulocytes, dendritic cells, keratinocytes, and endothelial cells. IL-10 plays a key role in differentiation and function of a newly appreciated type of T cell, the T regulatory cell, which may figure prominently in control of immune responses and tolerance in vivo. Uniquely among hemopoietic cytokines, IL-10 has closely related homologs in several virus genomes, which testify to its crucial role in regulating immune and inflammatory responses. This review highlights findings that have advanced our understanding of IL-10 and its receptor, as well as its in vivo function in health and disease.
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            Interleukin-10-deficient mice develop chronic enterocolitis.

            Interleukin-10 (IL-10) affects the growth and differentiation of many hemopoietic cells in vitro; in particular, it is a potent suppressor of macrophage and T cell functions. In IL-10-deficient mice, generated by gene targeting, lymphocyte development and antibody responses are normal, but most animals are growth retarded and anemic and suffer from chronic enterocolitis. Alterations in intestine include extensive mucosal hyperplasia, inflammatory reactions, and aberrant expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on epithelia. In contrast, mutants kept under specific pathogen-free conditions develop only a local inflammation limited to the proximal colon. These results indicate that the bowel inflammation in the mutants originates from uncontrolled immune responses stimulated by enteric antigens and that IL-10 is an essential immunoregulator in the intestinal tract.
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              A functionally specialized population of mucosal CD103+ DCs induces Foxp3+ regulatory T cells via a TGF-β– and retinoic acid–dependent mechanism

              Foxp3+ regulatory T (T reg) cells play a key role in controlling immune pathological re actions. Many develop their regulatory activity in the thymus, but there is also evidence for development of Foxp3+ T reg cells from naive precursors in the periphery. Recent studies have shown that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β can promote T reg cell development in culture, but little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate this pathway under more physiological conditions. Here, we show that after antigen activation in the intestine, naive T cells acquire expression of Foxp3. Moreover, we identify a population of CD103+ mesenteric lymph node dendritic cells (DCs) that induce the devel opment of Foxp3+ T reg cells. Importantly, promotion of T reg cell responses by CD103+ DCs is dependent on TGF-β and the dietary metabolite, retinoic acid (RA). These results newly identify RA as a cofactor in T reg cell generation, providing a mechanism via which functionally specialized gut-associated lymphoid tissue DCs can extend the repertoire of T reg cells focused on the intestine.

                Author and article information

                Impact Journals LLC
                31 May 2016
                24 March 2016
                : 7
                : 22
                : 32015-32030
                1 Department of Immunology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands
                2 Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany
                3 Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands
                4 Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Björn E. Clausen, bclausen@
                Copyright: © 2016 Girard-Madoux et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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