Aims: This survey was performed to determine how anaemia in pre-dialysis patients is currently managed. Methods: A random sample of 200 nephrologists attending the 1999 ERA/EDTA Congress participated in an interactive survey session. Participants were questioned on their current prescribing attitudes and preferences, and asked to select a preferred answer from a number of alternatives by means of an electronic key-pad. Results: Three quarters of the audience treated their pre-dialysis patients with erythropoietin. However, approximately 50% treated ≤10% of patients and only 8% of respondents treated ≧75%. In addition, more than half of the respondents said that very few of their patients currently self-administer erythropoietin. Increased healthcare expenditure was the main reason given for limiting treatment. Conclusions: The survey highlighted important gaps in long-term treatment strategies for pre-dialysis patients. It indicated that new approaches to the treatment of renal anaemia are needed to minimise disease progression and to prevent cardiac dysfunction and associated mortality. Erythropoietin has already been shown to significantly improve the survival of dialysis patients with renal anaemia, and new strategies might, therefore, include the prevention of anaemia in pre-dialysis patients by earlier initiation of erythropoietin therapy.