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      Sympathetic Responses to Central Hypovolemia: New Insights from Microneurographic Recordings


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          Hemorrhage remains a major cause of mortality following traumatic injury in both military and civilian settings. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) has been used as an experimental model to study the compensatory phase of hemorrhage in conscious humans, as it elicits central hypovolemia like that induced by hemorrhage. One physiological compensatory mechanism that changes during the course of central hypovolemia induced by both LBNP and hemorrhage is a baroreflex-mediated increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), as assessed with microneurography. The purpose of this review is to describe recent results obtained using microneurography in our laboratory as well as those of others that have revealed new insights into mechanisms underlying compensatory increases in MSNA during progressive reductions in central blood volume and how MSNA is altered at the point of hemodynamic decompensation. We will also review recent work that has compared direct MSNA recordings with non-invasive surrogates of MSNA to determine the appropriateness of using such surrogates in assessing the clinical status of hemorrhaging patients.

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          Heart rate variability: a review.

          Heart rate variability (HRV) is a reliable reflection of the many physiological factors modulating the normal rhythm of the heart. In fact, they provide a powerful means of observing the interplay between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. It shows that the structure generating the signal is not only simply linear, but also involves nonlinear contributions. Heart rate (HR) is a nonstationary signal; its variation may contain indicators of current disease, or warnings about impending cardiac diseases. The indicators may be present at all times or may occur at random-during certain intervals of the day. It is strenuous and time consuming to study and pinpoint abnormalities in voluminous data collected over several hours. Hence, HR variation analysis (instantaneous HR against time axis) has become a popular noninvasive tool for assessing the activities of the autonomic nervous system. Computer based analytical tools for in-depth study of data over daylong intervals can be very useful in diagnostics. Therefore, the HRV signal parameters, extracted and analyzed using computers, are highly useful in diagnostics. In this paper, we have discussed the various applications of HRV and different linear, frequency domain, wavelet domain, nonlinear techniques used for the analysis of the HRV.
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            Epidemiology of trauma deaths: a reassessment.

            Recognizing the impact of the 1977 San Francisco study of trauma deaths in trauma care, our purpose was to reassess those findings in a contemporary trauma system. Cross-sectional. All trauma deaths occurring in Denver City and County during 1992 were reviewed; data were obtained by cross-referencing four databases: paramedic trip reports, trauma registries, coroner autopsy reports and police reports. There were 289 postinjury fatalities; mean age was 36.8 +/- 1.2 years and mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 35.7 +/- 1.2. Predominant injury mechanisms were gunshot wounds in 121 (42%), motorvehicle accidents in 75 (38%) and falls in 23 (8%) cases. Seven (2%) individuals sustained lethal burns. Ninety eight (34%) deaths occurred in the pre-hospital setting. The remaining 191 (66%) patients were transported to the hospital. Of these, 154 (81%) died in the first 48 hours (acute), 11 (6%) within three to seven days (early) and 26 (14%) after seven days (late). Central nervous system injuries were the most frequent cause of death (42%), followed by exsanguination (39%) and organ failure (7%). While acute and early deaths were mostly due to the first two causes, organ failure was the most common cause of late death (61%). In comparison with the previous report, we observed similar injury mechanisms, demographics and causes of death. However, in our experience, there was an improved access to the medical system, greater proportion of late deaths due to brain injury and lack of the classic trimodal distribution.
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              The enigma of Mayer waves: Facts and models.

              Mayer waves are oscillations of arterial pressure occurring spontaneously in conscious subjects at a frequency lower than respiration (approximately 0.1 Hz in humans). Mayer waves are tightly coupled with synchronous oscillations of efferent sympathetic nervous activity and are almost invariably enhanced during states of sympathetic activation. For this reason, the amplitude of these oscillations has been proposed as a surrogate measure of sympathetic activity, although in the absence of a clear knowledge of their underlying physiology. Some studies have suggested that Mayer waves result from the activity of an endogenous oscillator located either in the brainstem or in the spinal cord. Other studies, mainly based on the effects of sinoaortic baroreceptor denervation, have challenged this view. Several models of dynamic arterial pressure control have been developed to predict Mayer waves. In these models, it was anticipated that the numerous dynamic components and fixed time delays present in the baroreflex loop would result in the production of a resonant, self-sustained oscillation of arterial pressure. Recent analysis of the various transfer functions of the rat baroreceptor reflex suggests that Mayer waves are transient oscillatory responses to hemodynamic perturbations rather than true feedback oscillations. Within this frame, the amplitude of Mayer waves would be determined both by the strength of the triggering perturbations and the sensitivity of the sympathetic component of the baroreceptor reflex.

                Author and article information

                Front Physiol
                Front Physiol
                Front. Physio.
                Frontiers in Physiology
                Frontiers Research Foundation
                15 March 2012
                26 April 2012
                : 3
                : 110
                [1] 1simpleU.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research Fort Sam Houston, TX, USA11
                [2] 2simpleDepartment of Health and Kinesiology, The University of Texas at San Antonio San Antonio, TX, USA
                Author notes

                Edited by: Elisabeth Lambert, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Australia

                Reviewed by: Roland Veelken, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Germany; Deborah A. Scheuer, University of Florida, USA

                *Correspondence: Kathy L. Ryan, Research Division, U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research, 3698 Chambers Pass, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234, USA. e-mail: kathy.ryan@ 123456amedd.army.mil

                This article was submitted to Frontiers in Integrative Physiology, a specialty of Frontiers in Physiology.

                Copyright © 2012 Ryan, Rickards, Hinojosa-Laborde, Cooke and Convertino.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited.

                : 16 February 2012
                : 03 April 2012
                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 123, Pages: 14, Words: 11319
                Review Article

                Anatomy & Physiology
                hemorrhage,msna,lbnp,baroreflex function,central hypovolemia,sympathetic activity
                Anatomy & Physiology
                hemorrhage, msna, lbnp, baroreflex function, central hypovolemia, sympathetic activity


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