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      O impacto de mudanças nas medidas de prevenção e no tratamento de infecções incisionais em cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio Translated title: The impact of new preventive measures and treatment of surgical site infections after coronary artery bypass graft surgery

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          Abstract

          OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto de novas medidas de prevenção e tratamento para infecções incisionais em cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio (RM). MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo incluindo 468 pacientes submetidos a RM com circulação extracorpórea, distribuídos em Grupo A (n=224) e Grupo B (n=244), de pacientes operados antes e após a adoção do novo protocolo, respectivamente. Análise comparativa entre os grupos procurou detectar a incidência de infecções superficiais e profundas na incisão para esternotomia, de recorrências e reinternações. RESULTADOS: Quanto aos fatores de risco relacionados a hábitos e doenças dos pacientes, aspectos cirúrgicos e hospitalares, ocorreram diferenças entre os grupos quanto a maior utilização da artéria mamária (p=0,003) e menor tempo de intubação orotraqueal (p=0,001) no Grupo B. Infecções incisionais - no Grupo A foram 44 (19,6%) casos, sendo 33 (14,7%) superficiais e 11 (4,9%) profundas; no Grupo B foram 13 (5,3%) casos com 10 (4,1%) superficiais e três (1,2%) profundas, sendo significativa a diferença quanto ao número total de infecções incisionais (p<0,001), superficiais (p<0,001) e profundas (p=0,037). As recorrências foram de 36,3% e 7,7%, respectivamente para os Grupos A e B (p=0,102). Ocorreram 21 reinternações relacionadas à infecção incisional no Grupo A e 3, no Grupo B (p<0,001). CONCLUSÃO: Para este grupo de pacientes, as mudanças adotadas resultaram em redução nas infecções incisionais e também diminuíram as reinternações relacionadas a este aspecto.

          Translated abstract

          OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of new preventive measures of surgical site infections after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. METHOD: A retrospective study of 468 patients who underwent CABG surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass was performed. These patients were distributed into two groups: Group A (n=224) and Group B (n=244), respectively before and after a new protocol. The two groups were compared by statistical analysis to determine differences in risk factors, the incidence of sternotomy surgical site infections (superficial and deep), recurrent infections and hospital readmission. RESULTS: There was a greater use of internal thoracic artery grafts (p=0.003) and a shorter time of mechanical ventilation (p=0.001) in Group B. Surgical site infections occurred in 44 patients of Group A (19.6%); 33 superficial (14.7%) and 11 deep (4.9%) while in Group B only 13 patients had this complication (5.3%); 10 superficial (4.1%) and three deep (1.2%) surgical site infections. Significant improvements were seen in the total number of surgical site infections (p<0.001), of superficial infections (p<0.001) and of deep infections (p=0.037). There were 36.3% and 7.7% of recurrent infections in Groups A and B, respectively (p=0.102). Hospital readmissions due to surgical site infections were 21 in Group A and three in Group B (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The new preventive measures and treatment for surgical site infections after CABG surgery in this series of patients, significantly reduced the incidence of sternotomy surgical site infections and hospital readmissions related to this complication.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Continuous intravenous insulin infusion reduces the incidence of deep sternal wound infection in diabetic patients after cardiac surgical procedures.

          Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for deep sternal wound infection after open heart surgical procedures. We previously showed that elevated postoperative blood glucose levels are a predictor of deep sternal wound infection in diabetic patients. Therefore, we hypothesized that aggressive intravenous pharmacologic control of postoperative blood glucose levels would reduce the incidence of deep sternal wound infection. In a prospective study of 2,467 consecutive diabetic patients who underwent open heart surgical procedures between 1987 and 1997, perioperative blood glucose levels were recorded every 1 to 2 hours. Patients were classified into two sequential groups: the control group included 968 patients treated with sliding-scale-guided intermittent subcutaneous insulin injections (SQI); the study group included 1,499 patients treated with a continuous intravenous insulin infusion in an attempt to maintain a blood glucose level of less than 200 mg/dL. There were no differences between these groups with respect to age, sex, procedure, bypass time, antibiotic prophylaxis, or skin preparation methods. Compared with subcutaneous insulin injections, continuous intravenous insulin infusion induced a significant reduction in perioperative blood glucose levels, which led to a significant reduction in the incidence of deep sternal wound infection in the continuous intravenous insulin infusion group (0.8% [12 of 1,499]) versus the intermittent subcutaneous insulin injection group (2.0% [19 of 968], p = 0.01 by the chi2 test). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that continuous intravenous insulin infusion induced a significant decrease in the risk of deep sternal wound infection (p = 0.005; relative risk, 0.34), whereas obesity (p < 0.03; relative risk, 1.06) and use of an internal thoracic artery pedicle (p = 0.1; relative risk, 2.0) increased the risk of deep sternal wound infection. Use of perioperative continuous intravenous insulin infusion in diabetic patients undergoing open heart surgical procedures significantly reduces major infectious morbidity and its associated socioeconomic costs.
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            National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System Report, data summary from January 1992 to June 2002, issued August 2002.

              (2002)
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              Cost of surgical site infections following coronary artery bypass surgery.

              Little information is available on the financial impact of surgical site infections (SSI) after major surgery. In order to calculate the cost of SSI following coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABGs), a 2-year retrospective case-control study was undertaken at Alfred Hospital, a university-affiliated tertiary referral centre. One hundred and eight patients with SSI (cases) after CABGs and 108 patients without SSI (controls) were matched for gender, age, risk index (Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) System) and number of principal comorbidities. The patient's postoperative length of stay (LOS), in both the intensive care unit (ICU) and the non-ICU (general) ward, was obtained from the medical records and the cost of a day in each was provided by the hospital's finance department. The cost of antibiotics prescribed for SSI was provided by the hospital's pharmacy department. Postoperatively the cases were in ICU for a total of 313 days whereas the controls spent 165 days in ICU, a mean of 2.89 versus 1.53 days, respectively (P = 0.035). In general wards, cases were inpatients for a total of 1651 days and controls for 589 days. This is a mean of 10.8 days for cases and 4.7 days for controls (P = 0.0001). The extra LOS for 108 cases (compared to the controls) was costed at $1 299 082, a mean cost of $12 028 per patient. The total cost of antibiotics prescribed for these SSI was $42 270 (a cost per case of $391). The total excess cost related to increased LOS and antibiotic treatment was $12 419 per patient. In the subgroup analysis for deep sternal site infections the mean excess cost was $31 597 per patient. Postoperative SSI result in significant patient morbidity and consume considerable resources. In the present study, patients with SSI following CABGs had significant prolongation of hospitalization (both in ICU and general wards). The present study illustrates the potential cost savings of introducing interventions to reduce SSI rates. This is the first time such a study has been undertaken in Australia.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rbccv
                Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
                Braz. J. Cardiovasc. Surg.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular (São José do Rio Preto )
                1678-9741
                December 2005
                : 20
                : 4
                : 382-391
                S0102-76382005000400006
                10.1590/S0102-76382005000400006

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Brazil
                Categories
                CARDIAC & CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMS
                SURGERY

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