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      Pharmacologic repression of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor γ is therapeutic in the collagen-induced arthritis experimental model.

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          Abstract

          The nuclear receptor retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor γ (RORγ; T cell-specific isoform RORγt) is a key regulator of Th17 cell differentiation, controlling the production of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17 (IL-17). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of monocytes leads to the induction of RORγ. We previously showed that the potent and selective inverse agonist of RORγ, SR2211, was effective at suppressing IL-17 production in EL4 cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of SR2211 treatment on proinflammatory cytokine expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells as well as on joint inflammation in vivo in mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA).

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          Most cited references 33

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          Interleukin-6: from basic science to medicine--40 years in immunology.

          This essay summarizes my 40 years of research in immunology. As a young physician, I encountered a patient with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, and this inspired me to study the structure of IgM. I began to ask how antibody responses are regulated. In the late 1960s, the essential role of T cells in antibody production had been reported. In search of molecules mediating T cell helper function, I discovered activities in the culture supernatant of T cells that induced proliferation and differentiation of B cells. This led to my life's work: studying one of those factors, interleukin-6 (IL-6). To my surprise, IL-6 turned out to play additional roles, including myeloma growth factor and hepatocyte-stimulating factor activities. More importantly, it was involved in a number of diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and Castleman's disease. I feel exceptionally fortunate that my work not only revealed the framework of cytokine signaling, including identification of the IL-6 receptor, gp130, NF-IL6, STAT3, and SOCS-1, but also led to the development of a new therapy for chronic inflammatory diseases.
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            Human interleukin-17: A T cell-derived proinflammatory cytokine produced by the rheumatoid synovium.

            To investigate the presence and role of interleukin-17 (IL-17) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and its regulation by antiinflammatory cytokines. The production of IL-17 was measured in supernatants of RA, osteoarthritis (OA), and normal synovial tissue pieces cultured ex vivo. Quantification of IL-17 was performed using a specific biologic assay. IL-17 gene expression was investigated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-techniques. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the frequency of IL-17-positive cells in synovium. The secretion of IL-17 by synovium was measured in the presence of IL-4, IL-13, and IL-10. In addition, the contributions of exogenous and endogenous IL-17 to IL-6 production by RA synovium were studied. Functional IL-17 was spontaneously produced by 16 of 18 RA (mean +/- SEM 41.7+/-11.4 units/ml), 2 of 12 OA (5.3+/-4.5 units/ml), and 0 of 3 normal synovial explant cultures. IL-17 messenger RNA expression was demonstrated by RT-PCR in 4 of 5 RA and 0 of 3 OA synovial samples. By immunostaining of RA synovium, IL-17-producing cells were found in the T cell-rich area. Addition of both IL-4 and IL-13 completely inhibited the production of IL-17, whereas IL-10 had no effect. Addition of exogenous IL-17 to RA synovium resulted in an increase in IL-6 production, whereas that of a blocking anti-IL-17 antibody reduced production of IL-6. The T cell cytokine IL-17 was found to be highly produced by RA, but not by OA, synovium. Its production and function were down-regulated by IL-4 and IL-13. These results indicate that IL-17 contributes to the active, proinflammatory pattern that is characteristic of RA. Through the contribution of IL-17, some Th1-like T cells appear to mediate synovial inflammation.
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              Macrophages in inflammation.

              The inflammatory process is usually tightly regulated, involving both signals that initiate and maintain inflammation and signals that shut the process down. An imbalance between the two signals leaves inflammation unchecked, resulting in cellular and tissue damage. Macrophages are a major component of the mononuclear phagocyte system that consists of closely related cells of bone marrow origin, including blood monocytes, and tissue macrophages. From the blood, monocytes migrate into various tissues and transform macrophages. In inflammation, macrophages have three major function; antigen presentation, phagocytosis, and immunomodulation through production of various cytokines and growth factors. Macrophages play a critical role in the initiation, maintenance, and resolution of inflammation. They are activated and deactivated in the inflammatory process. Activation signals include cytokines (interferon gamma, granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), bacterial lipopolysaccharide, extracellular matrix proteins, and other chemical mediators. Inhibition of inflammation by removal or deactivation of mediators and inflammatory effector cells permits the host to repair damages tissues. Activated macrophages are deactivated by anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor beta) and cytokine antagonists that are mainly produced by macrophages. Macrophages participate in the autoregulatory loop in the inflammatory process. Because macrophages produce a wide range of biologically active molecules participated in both beneficial and detrimental outcomes in inflammation, therapeutic interventions targeted macrophages and their products may open new avenues for controlling inflammatory diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.)
                2326-5205
                2326-5191
                Mar 2014
                : 66
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ] The Scripps Research Institute, Scripps Florida, Jupiter.
                Article
                NIHMS697252
                10.1002/art.38272
                24574218
                Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

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