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      The association of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus with canine infectious respiratory disease


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          Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is a multi-factorial infection that affects many kennelled dogs despite the wide use of vaccination. Current vaccines aim to protect against viral agents and a single bacterial agent, Bordetella bronchiseptica. We sought to examine the role of streptococcal species in CIRD. The isolation and identification of streptococci in the lower respiratory tract of clinically healthy dogs and those with CIRD were used to correlate the presence of specific streptococcal species with respiratory disease. In this study we report that the presence of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus is associated with increasing severity of disease in a population of kennelled dogs with endemic CIRD.

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          Most cited references15

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          A study of dogs with kennel cough.

          A detailed study of a population of dogs with kennel cough was undertaken. Twenty-seven (77 per cent) of a total of 35 dogs had pathological evidence of respiratory disease in the form of tracheobronchitis with, in some animals, exudative pneumonia. A variety of viral and bacterial agents were isolated from the respiratory tract of diseased dogs but Bordetella bronchiseptica and canine parainfluenza virus SV-5 appeared to be the most significant organisms recovered.
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            Epidemic nephritis in Nova Serrana, Brazil.

            Outbreaks of nephritis have been rare since the 1970s. From December, 1997, to July, 1998, 253 cases of acute nephritis were identified in Nova Serrana, Brazil. Seven patients required dialysis, and three patients died. We did a case-control study to investigate the cause of the outbreak. Using a matched cluster design, we examined seven recent patients, their family members (n=23), and members of neighbourhood-matched control households (n=22). We subsequently interviewed 50 patients and 50 matched controls about exposure to various dairy products. We also cultured dairy foods and took udder-swab and milk samples from cows. Throat cultures indicated that nephritis was associated with group C Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus, a cause of bovine mastitis. S. zooepidemicus was detected in four of seven case households (six of 30 people) and no control households (p=0.09). Patients were more likely than matched controls to have consumed a locally produced cheese called queijo fresco (matched odds ratio 2.1, p=0.05). The nephritis attack rate was 4.5 per 1000 in Nova Serrana but 18 per 1000 in the village Quilombo do Gaia (p=0.003). The largest supplier of unpasteurized queijo fresco was a farm in Quilombo do Gaia. S. zooepidemicus was not detected in food samples or in swabs collected from cows in August, 1998, although mastitis was evident among cows on the suspected farm. Throat cultures of the two women who prepared cheese on this farm yielded the outbreak strain of S. zooepidemicus. After the cheese was removed from the distribution system, no further cases were reported. A large outbreak of glomerulonephritis was attributed to S. zooepidemicus in unpasteurised cheese. This outbreak highlights the dangers of consuming unpasteurized dairy products and need for global efforts to promote food safety.
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              Hemorrhagic streptococcal pneumonia in newly procured research dogs.

              An acute necrotizing hemorrhagic pneumonia syndrome was recognized among 14 newly arrived research dogs. Typically, there were acute deaths without clinical signs. Necropsy revealed diffuse hemorrhagic pneumonia, and Lancefield group C Streptococcus zooepidemicus was isolated consistently from the lungs. In many cases, septic thrombi were seen in the small vessels of the kidneys, lymph nodes, spleen, brain, and adrenal glands. The syndrome was reproduced by intratracheal inoculation of the isolant into a susceptible dog.

                Author and article information

                Vet Microbiol
                Vet. Microbiol
                Veterinary Microbiology
                Elsevier B.V.
                24 June 2003
                29 August 2003
                24 June 2003
                : 95
                : 1
                : 149-156
                Department of Pathology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, UK
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Tel.: +44-1707-666-486; fax: +44-1707-661-464. vchalker@ 123456rvc.ac.uk
                Copyright © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                : 26 November 2002
                : 10 April 2003
                : 24 April 2003

                Veterinary medicine
                canine infectious respiratory disease,β-haemolytic,streptococcus canis,streptococcus equi subsp.,zooepidemicus


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