The role of taste perception, its relationship with oral microbiota composition, and their putative link with eating habits and food intake were the focus of the present study. A sample of 59 reportedly healthy adults (27 male, 32 female; age: 23.3 ± 2.6 years) were recruited for the study and taste thresholds for basic tastes, food intake, and oral microbiota composition were evaluated. Differences in taste perception were associated with different habitual food consumption (i.e., frequency) and actual intake. Subjects who were orally hyposensitive to salty taste reported consuming more bakery and salty baked products, saturated-fat-rich products, and soft drinks than hypersensitive subjects. Subjects hyposensitive to sweet taste reported consuming more frequently sweets and desserts than the hypersensitive group. Moreover, subjects hypersensitive to bitter taste showed higher total energy and carbohydrate intakes compared to those who perceived the solution as less bitter. Some bacterial taxa on tongue dorsum were associated with gustatory functions and with vegetable-rich (e.g., Prevotella) or protein/fat-rich diets (e.g., Clostridia). Future studies will be pivotal to confirm the hypothesis and the potential exploitation of oral microbiome as biomarker of long-term consumption of healthy or unhealthy diets.