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Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Case Control Study in Nepalese Population

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      Abstract

      Objectives. To assess cardiovascular risk factors in Nepalese population with subclinical hypothyroidism as compared to age and sex matched controls. Materials and Methods. A case control study was conducted among 200 subjects (100 subclinical hypothyroid and 100 euthyroid) at B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Demographic and anthropometric variables including systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were taken. Blood samples were assayed for serum free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP). Results. Subclinical hypothyroid patients had significantly higher diastolic BP, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and hs-CRP than controls. The odds ratio of having hypercholesterolemia (>200 mg/dL), low HDL cholesterol (<40 mg/dL), undesirable LDL-cholesterol (>100 mg/dL), high hs-CRP (>1 mg/L), and high diastolic BP (>80 mmHg) and being overweight (BMI ≥ 23 Kg/m 2) in subclinical hypothyroidism was 2.29 (95% CI; 1.2–4.38, p = 0.011), 1.73 (95% CI; 0.82–3.62, p = 0.141), 3.04 (95% CI; 1.66–5.56, p < 0.001), 2.02 (95% CI; 1.12–3.64, p = 0.018), 3.35 (95% CI; 1.72–6.55, p < 0.001), and 0.9 (95% CI; 0.48–1.67, p = 0.753), respectively, as compared to controls. Conclusion. Subclinical hypothyroid patients are associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease than euthyroid subjects.

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      Serum TSH, T(4), and thyroid antibodies in the United States population (1988 to 1994): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

      NHANES III measured serum TSH, total serum T(4), antithyroperoxidase (TPOAb), and antithyroglobulin (TgAb) antibodies from a sample of 17,353 people aged > or =12 yr representing the geographic and ethnic distribution of the U.S. population. These data provide a reference for other studies of these analytes in the U.S. For the 16,533 people who did not report thyroid disease, goiter, or taking thyroid medications (disease-free population), we determined mean concentrations of TSH, T(4), TgAb, and TPOAb. A reference population of 13,344 people was selected from the disease-free population by excluding, in addition, those who were pregnant, taking androgens or estrogens, who had thyroid antibodies, or biochemical hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. The influence of demographics on TSH, T(4), and antibodies was examined. Hypothyroidism was found in 4.6% of the U.S. population (0.3% clinical and 4.3% subclinical) and hyperthyroidism in 1.3% (0.5% clinical and 0.7% subclinical). (Subclinical hypothyroidism is used in this paper to mean mild hypothyroidism, the term now preferred by the American Thyroid Association for the laboratory findings described.) For the disease-free population, mean serum TSH was 1.50 (95% confidence interval, 1.46-1.54) mIU/liter, was higher in females than males, and higher in white non-Hispanics (whites) [1.57 (1.52-1.62) mIU/liter] than black non-Hispanics (blacks) [1.18 (1.14-1.21) mIU/liter] (P < 0.001) or Mexican Americans [1.43 (1.40-1.46) mIU/liter] (P < 0.001). TgAb were positive in 10.4 +/- 0.5% and TPOAb, in 11.3 +/- 0.4%; positive antibodies were more prevalent in women than men, increased with age, and TPOAb were less prevalent in blacks (4.5 +/- 0.3%) than in whites (12.3 +/- 0.5%) (P < 0.001). TPOAb were significantly associated with hypo or hyperthyroidism, but TgAb were not. Using the reference population, geometric mean TSH was 1.40 +/- 0.02 mIU/liter and increased with age, and was significantly lower in blacks (1.18 +/- 0.02 mIU/liter) than whites (1.45 +/- 0.02 mIU/liter) (P < 0.001) and Mexican Americans (1.37 +/- 0.02 mIU/liter) (P < 0.001). Arithmetic mean total T(4) was 112.3 +/- 0.7 nmol/liter in the disease-free population and was consistently higher among Mexican Americans in all populations. In the reference population, mean total T(4) in Mexican Americans was (116.3 +/- 0.7 nmol/liter), significantly higher than whites (110.0 +/- 0.8 nmol/liter) or blacks (109.4 +/- 0.8 nmol/liter) (P < 0.0001). The difference persisted in all age groups. In summary, TSH and the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies are greater in females, increase with age, and are greater in whites and Mexican Americans than in blacks. TgAb alone in the absence of TPOAb is not significantly associated with thyroid disease. The lower prevalence of thyroid antibodies and lower TSH concentrations in blacks need more research to relate these findings to clinical status. A large proportion of the U.S. population unknowingly have laboratory evidence of thyroid disease, which supports the usefulness of screening for early detection.
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        The Colorado thyroid disease prevalence study.

        The prevalence of abnormal thyroid function in the United States and the significance of thyroid dysfunction remain controversial. Systemic effects of abnormal thyroid function have not been fully delineated, particularly in cases of mild thyroid failure. Also, the relationship between traditional hypothyroid symptoms and biochemical thyroid function is unclear. To determine the prevalence of abnormal thyroid function and the relationship between (1) abnormal thyroid function and lipid levels and (2) abnormal thyroid function and symptoms using modern and sensitive thyroid tests. Cross-sectional study. Participants in a statewide health fair in Colorado, 1995 (N = 25 862). Serum thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH]) and total thyroxine (T4) concentrations, serum lipid levels, and responses to a hypothyroid symptoms questionnaire. The prevalence of elevated TSH levels (normal range, 0.3-5.1 mIU/L) in this population was 9.5%, and the prevalence of decreased TSH levels was 2.2%. Forty percent of patients taking thyroid medications had abnormal TSH levels. Lipid levels increased in a graded fashion as thyroid function declined. Also, the mean total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of subjects with TSH values between 5.1 and 10 mIU/L were significantly greater than the corresponding mean lipid levels in euthyroid subjects. Symptoms were reported more often in hypothyroid vs euthyroid individuals, but individual symptom sensitivities were low. The prevalence of abnormal biochemical thyroid function reported here is substantial and confirms previous reports in smaller populations. Among patients taking thyroid medication, only 60% were within the normal range of TSH. Modest elevations of TSH corresponded to changes in lipid levels that may affect cardiovascular health. Individual symptoms were not very sensitive, but patients who report multiple thyroid symptoms warrant serum thyroid testing. These results confirm that thyroid dysfunction is common, may often go undetected, and may be associated with adverse health outcomes that can be avoided by serum TSH measurement.
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          The Colorado Thyroid Disease Prevalence Study

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Modern Technical College, Satdobato, Lalitpur, Nepal
            2Department of Pharmacy, Central Institute of Science and Technology (CIST) College, Pokhara University, Kathmandu, Nepal
            3Department of Biochemistry, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal
            4Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal
            Author notes

            Academic Editor: Brendan C. Stack Jr.

            Journal
            J Thyroid Res
            J Thyroid Res
            JTR
            Journal of Thyroid Research
            Hindawi Publishing Corporation
            2090-8067
            2042-0072
            2015
            7 October 2015
            : 2015
            4615208 10.1155/2015/305241
            Copyright © 2015 Rajendra KC et al.

            This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Research Article

            Endocrinology & Diabetes

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