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      How is COVID-19 pandemic impacting mental health of children and adolescents?

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) affected virtually all countries. Uncertain about the health risk and an increasing financial loss will contribute to widespread emotional distress and an increased risk of psychiatric disorders shortly. Posttraumatic, anxiety, and depression disorders are expected during and aftermath of the pandemic. Some groups, like children, have more susceptibility to having long term consequences in mental health. Herein, we made a comprehensive and non-systematic search in four databases (PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholars) to answer the question: What are children's and adolescents' mental health effects of the pandemic? Furthermore, which features are essential for mental health in a pandemic? Results: Seventy-seven articles were selected for full text read, and 51 were included. Children answer stress differently, depending on the development stage. High rates of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic symptoms were identified among children. Discussion: Symptoms were as expected. New supportive strategies have appeared during this pandemic, but there is no measure of its effectiveness. Some groups seem to be more vulnerable to the mental health burden of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the mitigation actions should prioritize them. The school's role appears to be revalued by society. This review seems to pick good targets to prioritize mitigation actions aiming to spare children not only from the severe cases of COVID-19 but also to help them to deal with the mental health burden of the pandemics.

          Highlights

          • Anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic symptoms were observed in children and adolescents.

          • Children answer stress differently, depending on the development stage during pandemic.

          • The schools' role appears to be reevaluated by the society during the pandemic.

          • Mitigation actions should target the vulnerable groups.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Economic stress, coercive family process, and developmental problems of adolescents.

          We propose a model of family conflict and coercion that links economic stress in family life to adolescent symptoms of internalizing and externalizing emotions and behaviors. The 180 boys and 198 girls in the study were living in intact families in the rural Midwest, an area characterized by economic decline and uncertainty. Theoretical constructs in the model were measured using both trained observer and family member reports. These adolescents and their parents were interviewed each year for 3 years during the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades. Our theoretical model proposes that economic pressure experienced by parents increases parental dysphoria and marital conflict as well as conflicts between parents and children over money. High levels of spousal irritability, coupled with coercive exchanges over money matters, were expected to be associated with greater hostility in general by parents toward their children. These hostile/coercive exchanges were expected to increase the likelihood of adolescent emotional and behavioral problems. Overall, results were consistent with the proposed model. Moreover, the hypothesized processes applied equally well to the behavior of mothers and fathers, as well as sons and daughters.
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            Mental health effects of school closures during COVID-19

             J Lee (2020)
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              Differences in the determinants of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression after a mass traumatic event.

              Hurricane Ike struck the Galveston Bay area of Texas on September 13, 2008, leaving substantial destruction and a number of deaths in its wake. We assessed differences in the determinants of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression after this event, including the particular hurricane experiences, including postevent nontraumatic stressors, that were associated with these pathologies. 658 adults who had been living in Galveston and Chambers counties, TX in the month before Hurricane Ike were interviewed 2-5 months after the hurricane. We collected information on experiences during and after Hurricane Ike, PTSD and depressive symptoms in the month before the interview, and socio-demographic characteristics. The prevalence of past month hurricane-related PTSD and depression was 6.1 and 4.9%, respectively. Hurricane experiences, but not socio-demographic characteristics, were associated with Ike-related PTSD. By contrast, lower education and household income, and more lifetime stressors were associated with depression, as were hurricane exposures and hurricane-related stressors. When looking at specific hurricane-related stressors, loss or damage of sentimental possessions was associated with both PTSD and depression; however, health problems related to Ike were associated only with PTSD, whereas financial loss as a result of the hurricane was associated only with depression. PTSD is indeed a disorder of event exposure, whereas risk of depression is more clearly driven by personal vulnerability and exposure to stressors. The role of nontraumatic stressors in shaping risk of both pathologies suggests that alleviating stressors after disasters has clear potential to mitigate the psychological sequelae of these events. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Disaster Risk Reduct
                Int J Disaster Risk Reduct
                International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction
                Elsevier Ltd.
                2212-4209
                10 September 2020
                10 September 2020
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Pediatrics, Laboratory of Translational Medicine, Laboratory of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 30130-100, Brazil
                [b ]Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 30130-100, Brazil
                [c ]Department of Pediatrics, Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Medical Investigation, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 30130-100, Brazil
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. at: Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Investigação Médica, Avenida Alfredo Balena, 190, 2° andar, sala 281, Faculdade de Medicina, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 30.130-100, Brazil,
                Article
                S2212-4209(20)31347-9 101845
                10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101845
                7481176
                © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                Categories
                Review Article

                adolescent, children, pediatric, mental health

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