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      Mechanistic basis for the recognition of laminin-511 by α6β1 integrin

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          Abstract

          The Glu residue in the laminin γ-tail forms a bipartite integrin binding site with three globular domains of the α chain.

          Abstract

          Laminins regulate diverse cellular functions through interaction with integrins. Two regions of laminins—three laminin globular domains of the α chain (LG1–3) and the carboxyl-terminal tail of the γ chain (γ-tail)—are required for integrin binding, but it remains unclear how the γ-tail contributes to the binding. We determined the crystal structure of the integrin binding fragment of laminin-511, showing that the γ-tail extends to the bottom face of LG1–3. Electron microscopic imaging combined with biochemical analyses showed that integrin binds to the bottom face of LG1–3 with the γ1-tail apposed to the metal ion–dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) of integrin β1. These findings are consistent with a model in which the γ-tail coordinates the metal ion in the MIDAS through its Glu residue.

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          Most cited references 29

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          NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis.

          For the past 25 years NIH Image and ImageJ software have been pioneers as open tools for the analysis of scientific images. We discuss the origins, challenges and solutions of these two programs, and how their history can serve to advise and inform other software projects.
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            A simplified laminin nomenclature.

            A simplification of the laminin nomenclature is presented. Laminins are multidomain heterotrimers composed of alpha, beta and gamma chains. Previously, laminin trimers were numbered with Arabic numerals in the order discovered, that is laminins-1 to -5. We introduce a new identification system for a trimer using three Arabic numerals, based on the alpha, beta and gamma chain numbers. For example, the laminin with the chain composition alpha5beta1gamma1 is termed laminin-511, and not laminin-10. The current practice is also to mix two overlapping domain and module nomenclatures. Instead of the older Roman numeral nomenclature and mixed nomenclature, all modules are now called domains. Some domains are renamed or renumbered. Laminin epidermal growth factor-like (LE) domains are renumbered starting at the N-termini, to be consistent with general protein nomenclature. Domain IVb of alpha chains is named laminin 4a (L4a), domain IVa of alpha chains is named L4b, domain IV of gamma chains is named L4, and domain IV of beta chains is named laminin four (LF). The two coiled-coil domains I and II are now considered one laminin coiled-coil domain (LCC). The interruption in the coiled-coil of beta chains is named laminin beta-knob (Lbeta) domain. The chain origin of a domain is specified by the chain nomenclature, such as alpha1L4a. The abbreviation LM is suggested for laminin. Otherwise, the nomenclature remains unaltered.
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              Laminins in basement membrane assembly

              The heterotrimeric laminins are a defining component of all basement membranes and self-assemble into a cell-associated network. The three short arms of the cross-shaped laminin molecule form the network nodes, with a strict requirement for one α, one β and one γ arm. The globular domain at the end of the long arm binds to cellular receptors, including integrins, α-dystroglycan, heparan sulfates and sulfated glycolipids. Collateral anchorage of the laminin network is provided by the proteoglycans perlecan and agrin. A second network is then formed by type IV collagen, which interacts with the laminin network through the heparan sulfate chains of perlecan and agrin and additional linkage by nidogen. This maturation of basement membranes becomes essential at later stages of embryo development.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Adv
                Sci Adv
                SciAdv
                advances
                Science Advances
                American Association for the Advancement of Science
                2375-2548
                September 2017
                01 September 2017
                : 3
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Matrixome Research and Application, Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
                [2 ]Laboratory of Protein Synthesis and Expression, Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                []Corresponding author. Email: sekiguch@ 123456protein.osaka-u.ac.jp
                Article
                1701497
                10.1126/sciadv.1701497
                5580876
                28879238
                Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC).

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (JP);
                Award ID: award339162
                Award ID: #22122006
                Funded by: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (JP);
                Award ID: award339164
                Award ID: 24111006
                Categories
                Research Article
                Research Articles
                SciAdv r-articles
                Life Sciences
                Biochemistry
                Custom metadata
                Florcloven Cruz

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