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      Making the Most of Mealtimes (M3): Grounding Mealtime Interventions With a Conceptual Model

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          Malnutrition and its impact on cost of hospitalization, length of stay, readmission and 3-year mortality.

          The confounding effect of disease on the outcomes of malnutrition using diagnosis-related groups (DRG) has never been studied in a multidisciplinary setting. This study aims to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in a tertiary hospital in Singapore and its impact on hospitalization outcomes and costs, controlling for DRG. This prospective cohort study included a matched case control study. Subjective Global Assessment was used to assess the nutritional status on admission of 818 adults. Hospitalization outcomes over 3 years were adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, and matched for DRG. Malnourished patients (29%) had longer hospital stays (6.9±7.3 days vs. 4.6±5.6 days, p<0.001) and were more likely to be readmitted within 15 days (adjusted relative risk=1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2, p=0.025). Within a DRG, the mean difference between actual cost of hospitalization and the average cost for malnourished patients was greater than well-nourished patients (p=0.014). Mortality was higher in malnourished patients at 1 year (34% vs. 4.1 %), 2 years (42.6% vs. 6.7%) and 3 years (48.5% vs. 9.9%); p<0.001 for all. Overall, malnutrition was a significant predictor of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio=4.4, 95% CI 3.3-6.0, p<0.001). Malnutrition was evident in up to one third of the inpatients and led to poor hospitalization outcomes and survival as well as increased costs of care, even after matching for DRG. Strategies to prevent and treat malnutrition in the hospital and post-discharge are needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
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            Effect of family style mealtimes on quality of life, physical performance, and body weight of nursing home residents: cluster randomised controlled trial.

            To assess the effect of family style mealtimes on quality of life, physical performance, and body weight of nursing home residents without dementia. Cluster randomised trial. Five Dutch nursing homes. 178 residents (mean age 77 years). Two wards in each home were randomised to intervention (95 participants) or control groups (83). During six months the intervention group took their meals family style and the control group received the usual individual pre-plated service. Quality of life (perceived safety; autonomy; and sensory, physical, and psychosocial functioning), gross and fine motor function, and body weight. The difference in change between the groups was significant for overall quality of life (6.1 units, 95% confidence interval 2.1 to 10.3), fine motor function (1.8 units, 0.6 to 3.0), and body weight (1.5 kg, 0.6 to 2.4). Family style mealtimes maintain quality of life, physical performance, and body weight of nursing home residents without dementia. Clinical trials NCT00114582.
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              Effectiveness of mealtime interventions on nutritional outcomes for the elderly living in residential care: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

              The need to improve the nutrition of the elderly living in long term care has long been recognised, but how this can best be achieved, and whether (and which) intervention is successful in reducing morbidity is less well understood. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of mealtime interventions for the elderly living in residential care. Mealtime interventions were considered as those that aimed to change/improve the mealtime routine, practice, experience or environment. Following comprehensive searches, review and appraisal, 37 articles were included. Inadequate reporting in over half of the articles limited data quality appraisal. Mealtime interventions were categorised into five types: changes to food service, food improvement, dining environment alteration, staff training and feeding assistance. Meta-analysis found inconsistent evidence of effects on body weight of changes to food service (0.5 kg; 95% CI: -1.1 to 2.2; p=0.51), food improvement interventions (0.4 kg; 95% CI: -0.8 to 1.7; p=0.50) or alterations to dining environment (1.5 kg; 95% CI: -0.7 to 2.8; p=0.23). Findings from observational studies within these intervention types were mixed, but generally positive. Observational studies also found positive effects on food/caloric intake across all intervention types, though meta-analyses of randomised studies showed little evidence of any effects on food/caloric intake in food improvement studies (-5 kcal; 95% CI: -36 to 26; p=0.74). There was some evidence of an effect on daily energy intakes within dining environment studies (181 kcal/day, 95% CI: -5 to 367, p=0.06). The need to improve the nutrition of the elderly living in residential long term care is well recognised. This review found some evidence that simple intervention around various aspects of mealtime practices and the mealtime environment can result in favourable nutritional outcomes. Further large scale pragmatic trials, however, are still required to establish full efficacy of such interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
                Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
                Elsevier BV
                15258610
                March 2014
                March 2014
                : 15
                : 3
                : 158-161
                Article
                10.1016/j.jamda.2013.12.001
                81f1ef71-ae1a-4ecf-938d-a0efb58fec93
                © 2014

                http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/


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