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      The endemic plants of Mozambique: diversity and conservation status

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          An annotated checklist of the 271 strict-endemic taxa (235 species) and 387 near-endemic taxa (337 species) of vascular plants in Mozambique is provided. Together, these taxa constitute c. 9.3% of the total currently known flora of Mozambique and include five strict-endemic genera ( Baptorhachis , Emicocarpus , Gyrodoma , Icuria and Micklethwaitia ) and two near-endemic genera ( Triceratella and Oligophyton ). The mean year of first publication of these taxa is 1959, with a marked increase in description noted following the onset of the two major regional floristic programmes, the “Flora of Tropical East Africa” and “Flora Zambesiaca”, and an associated increase in botanical collecting effort. New taxa from Mozambique continue to be described at a significant rate, with 20 novelties described in 2018. Important plant families for endemic and near-endemic taxa include Fabaceae , Rubiaceae and Euphorbiaceae s.s. There is a high congruence between species-rich plant families and endemism with the notable exceptions of the Poaceae , which is the second-most species rich plant family, but outside of the top ten families in terms of endemism, and the Euphorbiaceae , which is the seventh-most species rich plant family, but third in terms of endemism. A wide range of life-forms are represented in the endemic and near-endemic flora, with 49% being herbaceous or having herbaceous forms and 55% being woody or having woody forms. Manica Province is by far the richest locality for near-endemic taxa, highlighting the importance of the cross-border Chimanimani-Nyanga (Manica) Highlands shared with Zimbabwe. A total of 69% of taxa can be assigned to one of four cross-border Centres of Endemism: the Rovuma Centre, the Maputaland Centre sensu lato, and the two mountain blocks, Chimanimani-Nyanga and Mulanje-Namuli-Ribaue. Approximately 50% of taxa have been assessed for their extinction risk and, of these, just over half are globally threatened (57% for strict-endemics), with a further 10% (17% for strict-endemics) currently considered to be Data Deficient, highlighting the urgent need for targeted conservation of Mozambique’s unique flora. This dataset will be a key resource for ongoing efforts to identify “Important Plant Areas – IPAs” in Mozambique, and to promote the conservation and sustainable management of these critical sites and species, thus enabling Mozambique to meet its commitments under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).

          Translated abstract

          Resumo

          Apresenta-se a lista das plantas vasculares de Moçambique, que compreende 271 taxa endémicos (235 espécies) e 387 taxa quase-endémicos (337 espécies). Estes taxa constituem cerca de 9,3% da flora total actualmente conhecida em Moçambique e incluem cinco géneros estritamente endémicos ( Baptorhachis , Emicocarpus , Gyrodoma , Icuria e Micklethwaitia ) e dois géneros quase-endémicos ( Triceratella e Oligophyton ). O ano médio das primeiras publicações destes taxa é 1959. Um aumento significativo na descrição de espécies novas foi verificado, relacionado com o início de dois projectos regionais, a “Flora of Tropical East Africa” e a “Flora Zambesiaca”, permitindo um esforço maior de colheitas botânicas. Novos taxa têm vindo a ser descritos a um ritmo significativo, com 20 novas espécies descritas em 2018 para a flora de Moçambique. As famílias Fabaceae , Rubiaceae e Euphorbiaceae , incluem importantes taxa endémicos e quase-endémicos. Existe uma estreita relação entre as famílias de plantas com elevado número de espécies e o grau de endemismo, excepção feita às Poaceae , que embora seja a segunda família mais rica em espécies não se posiciona no grupo das dez principais famílias em termos de endemismo. Por outro lado a família Euphorbiaceae , que é a sétima mais rica em espécies, posiciona-se em terceiro lugar quanto ao número de endemismo. A flora endémica apresenta diferentes formas de vida, sendo 49% das espécies herbáceas e 55% lenhosas. A Província de Manica é o local mais rico em taxa quase-endémicos, realçando assim a importância da área transfronteiriça Chimanimani-Nyanga (Manica) entre Moçambique e Zimbabwe. Refira-se ainda que 69% dos taxa encontra-se num dos quatro centros de endemismo transfronteiriços: o Centro do Rovuma, o Centro de Maputaland sensu lato e nas regiões montanhosas de Chimanimani-Nyanga e Mulanje-Namuli-Ribáuè. Cerca de 50% dos taxa foram avaliados quanto ao risco de extinção, estando mais da metade ameaçados globalmente (57% de endemismos) e 10% (17% de endemismos) foram incluídos na categoria Informação Insuficiente (DD), revelando que a maioria das plantas endémicas de Moçambique necessitam de conservação urgente. Este estudo fornece novos dados indispensáveis à identificação das “Áreas Importantes de Plantas – IPAs” em Moçambique, contribuindo ainda para implementar as estratégias de conservação anteriormente estabelecidas pela Convenção sobre a Diversidade Biológica (CBD).

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                PhytoKeys
                PhytoKeys
                3
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:F7FCE910-8E78-573F-9C77-7788555F8AAD
                PhytoKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2011
                1314-2003
                2019
                11 December 2019
                : 136
                : 45-96
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (RBG Kew), Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AE, UK Royal Botanic Gardens Richmond United Kingdom
                [2 ] 30 Warren Lane, East Dean, East Sussex BN20 0EW, UK Unaffiliated East Dean United Kingdom
                [3 ] Instituto de Investigação Agrária de Moçambique (IIAM), P.O. Box 3658, Mavalane, Maputo, Mozambique Instituto de Investigação Agrária de Moçambique Maputo Mozambique
                [4 ] Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, School of Anthropology and Conservation, Marlowe Building, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NR, UK University of Kent Canterbury United Kingdom
                [5 ] Department of Biological Sciences, Eduardo Mondlane University, P.O. Box 257, Maputo, Mozambique Eduardo Mondlane University Maputo Mozambique
                [6 ] Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, UK Lancaster University Lancaster United Kingdom
                [7 ] Herbarium, Nieuwelaan 38, Meise 1860, Belgium Herbarium Meise Belgium
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Iain Darbyshire ( i.darbyshire@ 123456kew.org )

                Academic editor: Anthony R. Magee

                Article
                39020
                10.3897/phytokeys.136.39020
                6920223
                Iain Darbyshire, Jonathan Timberlake, Jo Osborne, Saba Rokni, Hermenegildo Matimele, Clayton Langa, Castigo Datizua, Camila de Sousa, Tereza Alves, Alice Massingue, Jeneen Hadj-Hammou, Sonia Dhanda, Toral Shah, Bart Wursten

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Oppenheimer Philanthropies; Stephen and Margaret Lansdown; GBIF Biodiversity Information for Development (BID) fund
                Categories
                Research Article
                Angiospermae
                Gymnospermae
                Lycopodiophyta
                Monilophytes
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Biogeography
                Floristics & Distribution
                Taxonomy
                Cenozoic
                Africa
                Mozambique

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