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      Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Patients of King Fahd Medical City in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

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          Abstract

          This study is a retrospective analysis of the recorded intestinal parasitic infections for in- and outpatients visiting King Fahd Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from 2013 to 2017. In this study, a total of 5987 in- and outpatient were examined for intestinal parasitic infection. 30 patients out of 5987 were infected with 6 species of intestinal parasites with prevalence rate 0.5%. These parasites were Entamoeba histolytica (P = 0.27%), Cryptosporidium sp. (P = 0.1%), Giardia lamblia (P = 0.07%), Trichuris trichiura (P = 0.03%), Hymenolepis nana (P = 0.02%), and Chilomastix mesnili (P = 0.02%). The prevalence of infection in both males and females was 0.38% and 0.58%, respectively. Also, the prevalence of infection in different years and age groups as well as different seasons was provided. Intestinal parasitic infections are still a public health problem in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. Updating the epidemiologic survey of these parasites at regular intervals using the appropriate statistical methods is necessary to develop effective prevention and control strategies.

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          Diarrhoea in children: an interface between developing and developed countries.

          Despite much progress in the understanding of pathogenesis and of management, diarrhoeal illnesses remain one of the most important causes of global childhood mortality and morbidity. Infections account for most illnesses, with pathogens employing ingenious mechanisms to establish disease. In the developed world, an upsurge in immune-mediated gut disorders might have resulted from a disruption of normal bacterial-epithelial cross-talk and impaired maturation of the gut's immune system. Oral rehydration therapies are the mainstay of management of gastroenteritis, and their composition continues to improve. Malnutrition remains the major adverse prognostic indicator for diarrhoea-related mortality, emphasising the importance of nutrition in early management. Drugs are of little use, except for specific indications although new agents that target mechanisms of secretory diarrhoea show promise, as do probiotics. However, preventive strategies on a global scale might ultimately hold the greatest potential to reduce the burden of diarrhoeal disease. These strategies include vaccines and, most importantly, policies to address persisting inequalities between the developed and developing worlds with respect to nutrition, sanitation, and access to safe drinking water.
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            The drugs we have and the drugs we need against major helminth infections.

            Parasitic worms (helminths) have accompanied humans for thousands of years and, still today, they are pervasive where poverty persists, including large parts of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific Region. The global strategy for the control of helminth infections is morbidity control and elimination as a public health problem. Regular administration of anthelminthic drugs to at-risk populations (e.g. school-aged children) serves as the backbone of interventions in areas where helminth infections are highly endemic. In this review, we focus on soil-transmitted helminthiasis (ascariasis, hookworm disease, strongyloidiasis and trichuriasis) and food-borne trematodiasis (clonorchiasis, fascioliasis, intestinal fluke infections, opisthorchiasis and paragonimiasis) and discuss the few drugs that are currently available for their treatment and control. Emphasis is placed on efficacy with new light shed on multiple dosing and combination therapy. We summarise recent advances made with anthelminthic drugs that might become the future armentarium for the control of major helminthiasis (e.g. artemisinins, cyclooctadepsipeptides, mefloquine, monepantel, nitazoxandide, synthetic peroxides and tribendimidine). Issuing from our review are current research gaps and the need for concerted efforts to discover, develop and deploy the next generation of anthelminthic drugs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Prevalence and Factors Associated with Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Children in an Urban Slum of Karachi

              Background Intestinal parasitic infections are endemic worldwide and have been described as constituting the greatest single worldwide cause of illness and disease. Poverty, illiteracy, poor hygiene, lack of access to potable water and hot and humid tropical climate are the factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections. The study aimed to estimate prevalence and identify factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among 1 to 5 years old children residing in an urban slum of Karachi Pakistan. Methods and Principal Findings A cross sectional survey was conducted from February to June 2006 in Ghosia Colony Gulshan Town Karachi, Pakistan. A simple random sample of 350 children aged 1–5 years was collected. The study used structured pre-tested questionnaire, anthropometric tools and stool tests to obtain epidemiological and disease data. Data were analyzed using appropriate descriptive, univariate and multivariable logistic regression methods. The mean age of participants was 2.8 years and 53% were male. The proportions of wasted, stunted and underweight children were 10.4%, 58.9% and 32.7% respectively. The prevalence of Intestinal parasitic infections was estimated to be 52.8% (95% CI: 46.1; 59.4). Giardia lamblia was the most common parasite followed by Ascaris lumbricoides, Blastocystis hominis and Hymenolepis nana. About 43% children were infected with single parasite and 10% with multiple parasites. Age {Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1; 1.9}, living in rented households (aOR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.0; 3.9) and history of excessive crying (aOR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.0; 3.4) were significantly associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Conclusions Intestinal parasites are highly prevalent in this setting and poverty was implicated as an important risk factor for infection. Effective poverty reduction programmes and promotion of deworming could reduce intestinal parasite carriage. There is a need for mass scale campaigns to create awareness about health and hygiene.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Parasitol Res
                J Parasitol Res
                JPR
                Journal of Parasitology Research
                Hindawi
                2090-0023
                2090-0031
                2018
                26 July 2018
                : 2018
                : 8076274
                Affiliations
                1Medical Laboratory Sciences Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Majmaah University, 11952, Saudi Arabia
                2Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Assiut Branch), Assiut, Egypt
                3Medical Equipment Technology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Majmaah University, 11952, Saudi Arabia
                4Microbiology Department, King Fahd Medical City, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                5Environmental and Occupational Health, Public Health Agency, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Bernard Marchand

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7312-7112
                Article
                10.1155/2018/8076274
                6083544
                30147947
                820bed05-7e92-425a-b7c1-473bfd19a401
                Copyright © 2018 Omar S. O. Amer et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 26 April 2018
                : 17 July 2018
                Funding
                Funded by: Majmaah University
                Award ID: 38 /136
                Categories
                Research Article

                Parasitology
                Parasitology

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