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      Purified anthocyanin supplementation reduces dyslipidemia, enhances antioxidant capacity, and prevents insulin resistance in diabetic patients.

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          Abstract

          Oxidative stress plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Anthocyanin, a natural antioxidant, has been reported to reduce oxidative stress and to attenuate insulin resistance and diabetes in animal models; however, the translation of these observations to humans has not been fully tested.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

           A D Mooradian (2009)
          Dyslipidemia is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. The characteristic features of diabetic dyslipidemia are a high plasma triglyceride concentration, low HDL cholesterol concentration and increased concentration of small dense LDL-cholesterol particles. The lipid changes associated with diabetes mellitus are attributed to increased free fatty acid flux secondary to insulin resistance. The availability of multiple lipid-lowering drugs and supplements provides new opportunities for patients to achieve target lipid levels. However, the variety of therapeutic options poses a challenge in the prioritization of drug therapy. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia is not increased in patients with diabetes mellitus, but mortality from coronary heart disease increases exponentially as a function of serum cholesterol levels, and lowering of cholesterol with statins reduces diabetic patients' relative cardiovascular risk. Although drug therapy for dyslipidemia must be individualized, most people with diabetes mellitus are candidates for statin therapy, and often need treatment with multiple agents to achieve therapeutic goals.
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            Complex distribution, not absolute amount of adiponectin, correlates with thiazolidinedione-mediated improvement in insulin sensitivity.

            Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific secretory protein that circulates in serum as a hexamer of relatively low molecular weight (LMW) and a larger multimeric structure of high molecular weight (HMW). Serum levels of the protein correlate with systemic insulin sensitivity. The full-length protein affects hepatic gluconeogenesis through improved insulin sensitivity, and a proteolytic fragment of adiponectin stimulates beta oxidation in muscle. Here, we show that the ratio, and not the absolute amounts, between these two oligomeric forms (HMW to LMW) is critical in determining insulin sensitivity. We define a new index, S(A), that can be calculated as the ratio of HMW/(HMW + LMW). db/db mice, despite similar total adiponectin levels, display decreased S(A) values compared with wild type littermates, as do type II diabetic patients compared with insulin-sensitive individuals. Furthermore, S(A) improves with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist treatment (thiazolidinedione; TZD) in mice and humans. We demonstrate that changes in S(A) in a number of type 2 diabetic cohorts serve as a quantitative indicator of improvements in insulin sensitivity obtained during TZD treatment, whereas changes in total serum adiponectin levels do not correlate well at the individual level. Acute alterations in S(A) (DeltaS(A)) are strongly correlated with improvements in hepatic insulin sensitivity and are less relevant as an indicator of improved muscle insulin sensitivity in response to TZD treatment, further underscoring the conclusions from previous clamp studies that suggested that the liver is the primary site of action for the full-length protein. These observations suggest that the HMW adiponectin complex is the active form of this protein, which we directly demonstrate in vivo by its ability to depress serum glucose levels in a dose-dependent manner.
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              ACRP30/adiponectin: an adipokine regulating glucose and lipid metabolism.

              In recent years, we have learned that adipocytes are not merely inert storage depots for triglycerides but rather highly active cells with potent autocrine, paracrine and endocrine functions. Adipose tissue secretes a large number of physiologically active polypeptides. Although leptin remains one of the best-studied examples of an adipocyte-specific secretory factor, recent reports describe potent physiological activities for another adipocyte-specific secreted protein, adipocyte complement-related protein of 30 kDa (Acrp30). Full-length versions of Acrp30 or its proteolytic fragments decrease the postprandial rise of plasma free fatty acids and improve postabsorptive insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output. A strong correlation between plasma Acrp30 levels and systemic insulin sensitivity is well established and the protein has putative anti-atherogenic properties that are relevant for the prevention of formation of atherosclerotic plaques. The current challenge is to understand the molecular mechanisms through which the protein exerts its multiple functions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J. Nutr.
                The Journal of nutrition
                1541-6100
                0022-3166
                Apr 2015
                : 145
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition, and Health, Guangzhou, China; and Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
                [2 ] Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
                [3 ] Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition, and Health, Guangzhou, China; and Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China xiamin@mail.sysu.edu.cn.
                Article
                jn.114.205674
                10.3945/jn.114.205674
                25833778
                © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

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