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      Health Disparities due to Diminished Return among Black Americans: Public Policy Solutions : Health Disparities due to Diminished Return among Black Americans

      Social Issues and Policy Review
      Wiley

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          Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: findings from community studies.

          The authors review the available empirical evidence from population-based studies of the association between perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination and health. This research indicates that discrimination is associated with multiple indicators of poorer physical and, especially, mental health status. However, the extant research does not adequately address whether and how exposure to discrimination leads to increased risk of disease. Gaps in the literature include limitations linked to measurement of discrimination, research designs, and inattention to the way in which the association between discrimination and health unfolds over the life course. Research on stress points to important directions for the future assessment of discrimination and the testing of the underlying processes and mechanisms by which discrimination can lead to changes in health.
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            STRUCTURAL RACISM AND HEALTH INEQUITIES: Old Issues, New Directions.

            Racial minorities bear a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality. These inequities might be explained by racism, given the fact that racism has restricted the lives of racial minorities and immigrants throughout history. Recent studies have documented that individuals who report experiencing racism have greater rates of illnesses. While this body of research has been invaluable in advancing knowledge on health inequities, it still locates the experiences of racism at the individual level. Yet, the health of social groups is likely most strongly affected by structural, rather than individual, phenomena. The structural forms of racism and their relationship to health inequities remain under-studied. This article reviews several ways of conceptualizing structural racism, with a focus on social segregation, immigration policy, and intergenerational effects. Studies of disparities should more seriously consider the multiple dimensions of structural racism as fundamental causes of health disparities.
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              Race, socioeconomic status, and health: complexities, ongoing challenges, and research opportunities.

              This paper provides an overview of racial variations in health and shows that differences in socioeconomic status (SES) across racial groups are a major contributor to racial disparities in health. However, race reflects multiple dimensions of social inequality and individual and household indicators of SES capture relevant but limited aspects of this phenomenon. Research is needed that will comprehensively characterize the critical pathogenic features of social environments and identify how they combine with each other to affect health over the life course. Migration history and status are also important predictors of health and research is needed that will enhance understanding of the complex ways in which race, SES, and immigrant status combine to affect health. Fully capturing the role of race in health also requires rigorous examination of the conditions under which medical care and genetic factors can contribute to racial and SES differences in health. The paper identifies research priorities in all of these areas.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Social Issues and Policy Review
                Social Issues and Policy Review
                Wiley
                17512395
                January 2018
                January 16 2018
                : 12
                : 1
                : 112-145
                Article
                10.1111/sipr.12042
                821c6f95-f3bd-4120-a039-a2d6711aed8a
                © 2018

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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