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      Avances y perspectivas sobre el estudio del origen y la diversidad genética de Capsicum spp. Translated title: Advances and perspectives about the study of the origin and genetic diversity of Capsicum spp.

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          Abstract

          En este trabajo se analizan los estudios sobre el análisis filogenético y la diversidad del género Capsicum especialmente de aquellos con un enfoque molecular. Además, se analizan las perspectivas sobre el conocimiento de la filogenia, la diversidad y las relaciones genéticas, con énfasis en los recursos genéticos de Capsicum silvestre y cultivado de México. Los estudios en Capsicum han enfatizado el análisis de la evolución y la filogenia del género; así como las relaciones genéticas, niveles de variabilidad genética y de diversidad Ínter e intraespecífica, con germoplasma de ciertas regiones, especies o condiciones genéticas (especies, subespecies, variedades, variedades criollas, silvestres). Los estudios han identificado centros de origen y de diversidad de Capsicum, ancestros comunes de las especies cultivadas, patrones probables de dispersión y de diversificación del género y las relaciones genéticas, estructuración genética y patrones de diversidad de germoplasma silvestre, criollo y mejorado de chile de colecciones con orígenes variados. No obstante los avances, es evidente que los esfuerzos han sido focalizados o restringidos al origen del germoplasma utilizado en cada trabajo, de modo que es frecuente el sesgo o el panorama parcial del contexto analizado. Este análisis permite concluir que es necesario que los futuros trabajos sobre origen, evolución y diversidad de Capsicum enfaticen el estudio a niveles más complejos y que incluyan poblaciones representativas del género y/o especies a estudiar, para así evitar incongruencias y obtener reconstrucciones filogenéticas, estructuras genéticas de poblaciones y/o estimaciones de diversidad genética Ínter y/o intraespecíficas precisas y robusta.

          Translated abstract

          In this work we analyzed the research about phylogey and genetic diversity in Capsicum genus mainly those with a molecular emphasis. In addition, we analyze perspectives of these reviewed advances based on the knowledge about phylogeny, genetic diversity and genetic relationships with the emphasis on Capsicum genetic re-sources from México. Works conducted in Capsicum emphasize the analysis of evolution and phylogeny into the genus as well as the analysis of genetic relationships and the levels of genetic variability and Ínter and intra-specific diversity using germplasm from some regions, species or genetic status (species, sub-species, cultivars, landraces, wild germplasm). These studies have identified the origin and diversity centers of Capsicum, the common ancestors of some cultivated species, the most probable dispersión and diversification patterns and the genetic relations, genetic structure and diversity patterns of wild, landrace and breed pepper germplasm with varied origins. Despite advances, it is evident that efforts have been focused or restricted by germplasm origins in each work, so that is frequent the bias or the partial overview of analyzed context. Our analysis let conclude that further works about Capsicum origin, evolution and diversity must emphasizes the study to the most complex levels including representative populations of the genus/species to be studied in order to avoid contradictions and then can obtain more precise and robust phylogenetic re-constructions, genetic structure of populations and/or calculations of Ínter and/or intra-species genetic diversity levels data.

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          Most cited references 74

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          De Novo Transcriptome Assembly in Chili Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) to Identify Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Capsaicinoids

          The capsaicinoids are a group of compounds produced by chili pepper fruits and are used widely in many fields, especially in medical purposes. The capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway has not yet been established clearly. To understand more knowledge in biosynthesis of capsaicinoids, we applied RNA-seq for the mixture of placenta and pericarp of pungent pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.). We have assessed the effect of various assembly parameters using different assembly software, and obtained one of the best strategies for de novo assembly of transcriptome data. We obtained a total 54,045 high-quality unigenes (transcripts) using Trinity software. About 92.65% of unigenes showed similarity to the public protein sequences, genome of potato and tomato and pepper (C. annuum) ESTs databases. Our results predicted 3 new structural genes (DHAD, TD, PAT), which filled gaps of the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway predicted by Mazourek, and revealed new candidate genes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis based on KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis. A significant number of SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) and SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) markers were predicted in C. frutescens and C. annuum sequences, which will be helpful in the identification of polymorphisms within chili pepper populations. These data will provide new insights to the pathway of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and subsequent research of chili peppers. In addition, our strategy of de novo transcriptome assembly is applicable to a wide range of similar studies.
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            Conservation of gene repertoire but not gene order in pepper and tomato.

            Homologies of tomato and pepper genes have been compared, and genetic linkage maps have been constructed based on a common set of cDNA clones and selected single-copy genomic clones. We report here that the gene repertoire of these two species is highly conserved, yet the linear order of the genes on the chromosomes has been greatly modified. Although the two species share the same number of centromeres, the chromosomal regions around those centromeres have undergone extensive rearrangements. Accompanying the extensive chromosome rearrangement has been a change in locus number for approximately 12% of the loci detected by random cDNA clones. Duplicated loci within each genome are normally found on different chromosomes and are not confined to one species, thus ruling out gene duplication as an explanation for the 4-fold higher DNA content of pepper. At least one of the duplications occurred since the divergence of tomato and pepper from their last common ancestor.
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              Relationships Between Weedy and Cultivated Forms in Some Species of Chili Peppers (Genus capsicum)

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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ] Instituto Politécnico Nacional México
                [2 ] Instituto Politécnico Nacional México
                [3 ] Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco México
                [4 ] Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias México
                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                era
                Ecosistemas y recursos agropecuarios
                Ecosistemas y recur. agropecuarios
                Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado (Villahermosa )
                2007-901X
                April 2015
                : 2
                : 4
                : 117-128
                S2007-90282015000100009

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Mexico
                Categories
                Biodiversity Conservation
                Environmental Studies

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