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      Distribution of two rare taxa of caddisflies (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae, Polycentropodidae) from the Republic of Kosovo

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          Abstract

          Abstract
          Background

          The knowledge about distribution, ecology and species composition of caddisflies of the Balkan Peninsula is still not complete. The ongoing investigations of the last years highlight this area as an important hotspot of caddisfly diversity. Polycentropus ierapetra slovenica has been considered a narrow range endemic of Slovenia and surrounding areas. Rhyacophila aurata , a species known from many parts of Europe, according to the current knowledge, is absent from a large part of the Balkan Peninsula.

          New information

          In this paper, we present records of these two rare taxa of Trichoptera from the Republic of Kosovo with exact distribution data, based on sampling carried out randomly during 2014 and 2017. Polycentropus ierapetra slovenica was found in several streams in Bjeshkët e Nemuna Mountains and Karadak Mountains. Rhyacophila aurata was found during this investigation at a single locality in Bjeshkët e Nemuna Mountains.

          The unexpected finding of these two taxa in Kosovo greatly enlarges their known distribution area and makes a contribution towards the better knowledge of distributional patterns of these rare taxa of caddisflies in this part of Europe.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 17

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          Microscale vicariance and diversification of Western Balkan caddisflies linked to karstification.

          The karst areas in the Dinaric region of the Western Balkan Peninsula are a hotspot of freshwater biodiversity. Many investigators have examined diversification of the subterranean freshwater fauna in these karst systems. However, diversification of surface-water fauna remains largely unexplored. We assessed local and regional diversification of surface-water species in karst systems and asked whether patterns of population differentiation could be explained by dispersal-diversification processes or allopatric diversification following karst-related microscale vicariance. We analyzed mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) sequence data of 4 caddisfly species (genus Drusus) in a phylogeographic framework to assess local and regional population genetic structure and Pliocene/Pleistocene history. We used BEAST software to assess the timing of intraspecific diversification of the target species. We compared climate envelopes of the study species and projected climatically suitable areas during the last glacial maximum (LGM) to assess differences in the species climatic niches and infer potential LGM refugia. The haplotype distribution of the 4 species (324 individuals from 32 populations) was characterized by strong genetic differentiation with few haplotypes shared among populations (16%) and deep divergence among populations of the 3 endemic species, even at local scales. Divergence among local populations of endemics often exceeded divergence among regional and continental clades of the widespread D. discolor. Major divergences among regional populations dated to 2.0 to 0.5 Mya. Species distribution model projections and genetic structure suggest that the endemic species persisted in situ and diversified locally throughout multiple Pleistocene climate cycles. The pattern for D. discolor was different and consistent with multiple invasions into the region. Patterns of population genetic structure and diversification were similar for the 3 regional endemic Drusus species and consistent with microscale vicariance after the onset of intensified karstification in the Dinaric region. Karstification may induce microscale vicariance of running surface-water habitats and probably promotes allopatric fragmentation of stream insects at small spatial scales.
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            Larval morphology and phylogenetic position of Drusus balcanicus, Drusus botosaneanui, Drusus serbicus and Drusus tenellus (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae: Drusinae).

            In a recent 3-gene phylogeny of the Trichoptera subfamily Drusinae Banks, 1916 molecular data clearly correlated with the morphology and feeding ecology of larvae. The largest of three main groups, the Drusinae grazer clade, exhibits an unusual larval feeding ecology for Limnephilidae, and is the most diverse group. In this paper we describe four previously unknown Drusinae larvae from this clade: Drusus balcanicus Kumanski, 1973 (micro-endemic to Eastern Balkans); Drusus botosaneanui Kumanski, 1968 (Dinaric Western Balkans, Hellenic and Eastern Balkan, Asia Minor), Drusus serbicus Marinković-Gospodnetić, 1971a (micro-endemic to Dinaric Western Balkans); and Drusus tenellus (Klapálek, 1898) (Carpathians, Dinaric Eastern Balkans). Characteristically, the larvae of these species develop toothless mandibles typical for the Drusinae grazer clade. Larvae and adults were unambiguously associated by a phylogenetic approach based on two mitochondrial (mtCOI, mtLSU= 16S rDNA) and two nuclear genes (nuWG, nuCAD). In addition, information on the morphology of the larvae is given and the diagnostic features necessary for identification are illustrated.
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              Drusus sharrensis sp. n. (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae), a new species from Sharr National Park in Kosovo, with molecular and ecological notes

              Abstract In this paper we describe Drusus sharrensis sp. n., from the Sharr Mountains in Kosovo. Males of the new species are morphologically most similar to Drusus krusniki Malicky, 1981, Drusus kerek Oláh, 2011 and Drusus juliae Oláh, 2011 but differ mainly in exhibiting (1) a differently shaped spinose area on tergite VIII; (2) intermediate appendages anteriorly curved in lateral view with broad tips in dorsal view; (3) inferior appendages with a distinct dorsal protrusion in the proximal half. Females of the new species are morphologically most similar to Drusus krusniki , Drusus kerek , Drusus juliae , and Drusus plicatus Radovanovic, 1942 but mainly differ in (1) segment X that is longer than the supragenital plate with distinctly pointed tips; (2) supragenital plate quadrangular with a distinct round dorsal protrusion; (3) a vulvar scale with a small median lobe. Results of phylogenetic species delimitation support monophyly of Drusus sharrensis sp. n. and recover it as sister to a clade comprising ( Drusus pelasgus Oláh, 2010 + Drusus juliae + Drusus arbanios Oláh, 2010 + Drusus plicatus + ( Drusus dacothracus Oláh, 2010 + Drusus illyricus Oláh, 2010)). The new species is a micro-endemic of the Sharr Mountains, a main biodiversity hotspot in the Balkan Peninsula. Main threats to the aquatic ecosystems of this part of the Balkan Peninsula are discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biodivers Data J
                Biodivers Data J
                1
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:F9B2E808-C883-5F47-B276-6D62129E4FF4
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:245B00E9-BFE5-4B4F-B76E-15C30BA74C02
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2828
                2019
                13 December 2019
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Prishtina "Hasan Prishtina", Prishtina, Kosovo Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Prishtina "Hasan Prishtina" Prishtina Kosovo
                [2 ] Faculty of Education, University of Prishtina "Hasan Prishtina", Prishtina, Kosovo Faculty of Education, University of Prishtina "Hasan Prishtina" Prishtina Kosovo
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Ruzhdi Kuçi ( ruzhdi.a.kuqi@ 123456hotmail.com ).

                Academic editor: Benjamin Price

                Article
                46466 12551
                10.3897/BDJ.7.e46466
                6926430
                Halil Ibrahimi, Ruzhdi Kuçi, Astrit Bilalli, Milaim Musliu, Arben Gashi, Naman Sinani, Besnik Emërllahu

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 1, References: 21
                Categories
                Taxonomic Paper
                Trichoptera
                Biogeography
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Europe

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