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      The GermOnline cross-species systems browser provides comprehensive information on genes and gene products relevant for sexual reproduction

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          We report a novel release of the GermOnline knowledgebase covering genes relevant for the cell cycle, gametogenesis and fertility. GermOnline was extended into a cross-species systems browser including information on DNA sequence annotation, gene expression and the function of gene products. The database covers eight model organisms and Homo sapiens, for which complete genome annotation data are available. The database is now built around a sophisticated genome browser (Ensembl), our own microarray information management and annotation system (MIMAS) used to extensively describe experimental data obtained with high-density oligonucleotide microarrays (GeneChips) and a comprehensive system for online editing of database entries (MediaWiki). The RNA data include results from classical microarrays as well as tiling arrays that yield information on RNA expression levels, transcript start sites and lengths as well as exon composition. Members of the research community are solicited to help GermOnline curators keep database entries on genes and gene products complete and accurate. The database is accessible at

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          Most cited references 26

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          The transcriptional landscape of the mammalian genome.

          This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and polyadenylation. There are 16,247 new mouse protein-coding transcripts, including 5154 encoding previously unidentified proteins. Genomic mapping of the transcriptome reveals transcriptional forests, with overlapping transcription on both strands, separated by deserts in which few transcripts are observed. The data provide a comprehensive platform for the comparative analysis of mammalian transcriptional regulation in differentiation and development.
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            Internet encyclopaedias go head to head.

             Jim Giles (2005)
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              A high-resolution map of transcription in the yeast genome.

              There is abundant transcription from eukaryotic genomes unaccounted for by protein coding genes. A high-resolution genome-wide survey of transcription in a well annotated genome will help relate transcriptional complexity to function. By quantifying RNA expression on both strands of the complete genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a high-density oligonucleotide tiling array, this study identifies the boundary, structure, and level of coding and noncoding transcripts. A total of 85% of the genome is expressed in rich media. Apart from expected transcripts, we found operon-like transcripts, transcripts from neighboring genes not separated by intergenic regions, and genes with complex transcriptional architecture where different parts of the same gene are expressed at different levels. We mapped the positions of 3' and 5' UTRs of coding genes and identified hundreds of RNA transcripts distinct from annotated genes. These nonannotated transcripts, on average, have lower sequence conservation and lower rates of deletion phenotype than protein coding genes. Many other transcripts overlap known genes in antisense orientation, and for these pairs global correlations were discovered: UTR lengths correlated with gene function, localization, and requirements for regulation; antisense transcripts overlapped 3' UTRs more than 5' UTRs; UTRs with overlapping antisense tended to be longer; and the presence of antisense associated with gene function. These findings may suggest a regulatory role of antisense transcription in S. cerevisiae. Moreover, the data show that even this well studied genome has transcriptional complexity far beyond current annotation.

                Author and article information

                Nucleic Acids Res
                Nucleic Acids Res
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Oxford University Press
                January 2007
                1 December 2006
                01 December 2006
                : 35
                : Database issue
                : D457-D462
                Biozentrum & Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Klingelbergstrasse 50-70 CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +41 61 267 2098; Fax: +41 61 267 3398; Email: michael.primig@

                Present address:

                Leandro Hermida, Friedrich Miescher Institute, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland

                © 2006 The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.




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