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      Resistance of an invasive gastropod to an indigenous trematode parasite in Lake Malawi

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      Biological Invasions

      Springer Nature

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          Most cited references 28

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          Introduced species and their missing parasites.

          Damage caused by introduced species results from the high population densities and large body sizes that they attain in their new location. Escape from the effects of natural enemies is a frequent explanation given for the success of introduced species. Because some parasites can reduce host density and decrease body size, an invader that leaves parasites behind and encounters few new parasites can experience a demographic release and become a pest. To test whether introduced species are less parasitized, we have compared the parasites of exotic species in their native and introduced ranges, using 26 host species of molluscs, crustaceans, fishes, birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles. Here we report that the number of parasite species found in native populations is twice that found in exotic populations. In addition, introduced populations are less heavily parasitized (in terms of percentage infected) than are native populations. Reduced parasitization of introduced species has several causes, including reduced probability of the introduction of parasites with exotic species (or early extinction after host establishment), absence of other required hosts in the new location, and the host-specific limitations of native parasites adapting to new hosts.
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            Roles of parasites in animal invasions.

            Biological invasions are global threats to biodiversity and parasites might play a role in determining invasion outcomes. Transmission of parasites from invading to native species can occur, aiding the invasion process, whilst the 'release' of invaders from parasites can also facilitate invasions. Parasites might also have indirect effects on the outcomes of invasions by mediating a range of competitive and predatory interactions among native and invading species. Although pathogen outbreaks can cause catastrophic species loss with knock-on effects for community structure, it is less clear what impact persistent, sub-lethal parasitism has on native-invader interactions and community structure. Here, we show that the influence of parasitism on the outcomes of animal invasions is more subtle and wide ranging than has been previously realized.
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              Experimental evolution of parasites.

              Serial passage experiments are a form of experimental evolution that is frequently used in applied sciences; for example, in vaccine development. During these experiments, molecular and phenotypic evolution can be monitored in real time, providing insights into the causes and consequences of parasite evolution. Within-host competition generally drives an increase in a parasite's virulence in a new host, whereas the parasite becomes avirulent to its former host, indicating a trade-off between parasite fitnesses on different hosts. Understanding why parasite virulence seldom escalates similarly in natural populations could help us to manage virulence and deal with emerging diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biological Invasions
                Biol Invasions
                Springer Nature
                1387-3547
                1573-1464
                January 2008
                March 24 2007
                : 10
                : 1
                : 41-49
                Article
                10.1007/s10530-007-9105-1
                © 2007
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