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      Cognitive science and artificial intelligence: simulating the human mind and its complexity

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          Abstract

          This study encompassed around the interdisciplinary study of cognitive science in the field of artificial intelligence. Past as well as current areas of research have been highlighted such that better understating of the topic can be ensured. Furthermore, some of the present-day applications of cognitive science artificial intelligence have been discussed as these can be considered as the foundation for further improvement. Prior to discussion about future scopes, real-time complexities have been revealed.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Development of a permeability-limited model of the human brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to integrate known physiological and biological knowledge: Estimating time varying CSF drug concentrations and their variability using in vitro data.

          A 4-compartment permeability-limited brain (4Brain) model consisting of brain blood, brain mass, cranial and spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartments has been developed and incorporated into a whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model within the Simcyp Simulator. The model assumptions, structure, governing equations and system parameters are described. The model in particular considers the anatomy and physiology of the brain and CSF, including CSF secretion, circulation and absorption, as well as the function of various efflux and uptake transporters existing on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB), together with the known parameter variability. The model performance was verified using in vitro data and clinical observations for paracetamol and phenytoin. The simulated paracetamol spinal CSF concentration is comparable with clinical lumbar CSF data for both intravenous and oral doses. Phenytoin CSF concentration-time profiles in epileptic patients were simulated after accounting for disease-induced over-expression of efflux transporters within the BBB. Various 'what-if' scenarios, involving variation of specific drug and system parameters of the model, demonstrated that the 4Brain model is able to simulate the possible impact of transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions, the lumbar puncture process and the age-dependent change in the CSF turnover rate on the local PK within the brain.
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            A Working Memory System With Distributed Executive Control.

            Working memory consists of domain-specific storage facilities and domain-general executive control processes. In some working memory theories, these control processes are accounted for via a homunculus, the central executive. In the present article, the author defends a mechanistic view of executive control by adopting the position that executive control is situated in the context of goal-directed behavior to maintain and protect the goal and to select an action to attain the goal. On the basis of findings in task switching and dual tasking, he proposes an adapted multicomponent working memory model in which the central executive is replaced by three interacting components: an executive memory that maintains the task set, a collection of acquired procedural rules, and an engine that executes the procedural rules that match the ensemble of working memory contents. The strongest among the rules that match the ensemble of working memory contents is applied, resulting in changes of the working memory contents or in motor actions. According to this model, goals are attained when the route to the goals is known or can be searched when the route is unknown (problem solving). Empirical evidence for this proposal and new predictions are discussed.
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              A Standard Model of the Mind: Toward a Common Computational Framework across Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Science, Neuroscience, and Robotics

              The purpose of this article is to begin the process of engaging the international research community in developing what can be called a standard model of the mind, where the mind we have in mind here is human-like. The notion of a standard model has its roots in physics, where over more than a half-century the international community has developed and tested a standard model that combines much of what is known about particles. This model is assumed to be internally consistent, yet still have major gaps. Its function is to serve as a cumulative reference point for the field while also driving efforts to both extend and break it.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                CCS
                Cognitive Computation and Systems
                Cogn. Comput. Syst.
                The Institution of Engineering and Technology
                2517-7567
                10 October 2019
                27 November 2019
                December 2019
                : 1
                : 4
                : 113-116
                Affiliations
                Department of Applied Psychology, Bharathiar University , Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
                Article
                CCS.2019.0022 CCS.2019.0022
                10.1049/ccs.2019.0022

                This is an open access article published by the IET in partnership with Shenzhen University under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/)

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