Blog
About

1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Synthesis of Novel Farnesoid X Receptor Agonists and Validation of Their Efficacy in Activating Differentiation of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Osteoblasts

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The modulators of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a bile acid receptor, regulate various biological processes including bile acid metabolism, and are associated with the control of fatty liver and osteoporosis. Thus, the control of FXR activity and development of FXR modulators are critical not only for research, but also for clinical application. In this study, we synthesized novel FXR agonists 14 possessing isoxazole and N-substituted benzimidazole moieties, and compared their effects on osteoblast differentiation with the known FXR agonists, chenodeoxycholic acid and a synthetic compound, GW4064. Two ( 3 and 4) of the four novel FXR agonists 14 showed high specificities for FXR. Computer-assisted modeling suggested that the binding of the FXR agonist 3 with ligand binding domain of FXR was similar to GW4064. FXR was expressed in mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like ST2 cells (ST-2 MSCs). The FXR agonists activated the BMP-2-induced differentiation of ST-2 MSCs into osteoblasts and enhanced the expression of RUNX2. Moreover, the potency of the FXR agonist 3 was comparable to GW4064 in promoting osteoblast differentiation of ST-2 MSCs. These results indicate that FXR activation enhanced the BMP-2-induced differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts through activating RUNX2 expression. FXR could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of bone diseases such as osteoporosis.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 57

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Identification of a nuclear receptor for bile acids.

          Bile acids are essential for the solubilization and transport of dietary lipids and are the major products of cholesterol catabolism. Results presented here show that bile acids are physiological ligands for the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), an orphan nuclear receptor. When bound to bile acids, FXR repressed transcription of the gene encoding cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, and activated the gene encoding intestinal bile acid-binding protein, which is a candidate bile acid transporter. These results demonstrate a mechanism by which bile acids transcriptionally regulate their biosynthesis and enterohepatic transport.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Identification of a nuclear receptor that is activated by farnesol metabolites.

            Nuclear hormone receptors comprise a superfamily of ligand-modulated transcription factors that mediate the transcriptional activities of steroids, retinoids, and thyroid hormones. A growing number of related proteins have been identified that possess the structural features of hormone receptors, but that lack known ligands. Known as orphan receptors, these proteins represent targets for novel signaling molecules. We have isolated a mammalian orphan receptor that forms a heterodimeric complex with the retinoid X receptor. A screen of candidate ligands identified farnesol and related metabolites as effective activators of this complex. Farnesol metabolites are generated intracellularly and are required for the synthesis of cholesterol, bile acids, steroids, retinoids, and farnesylated proteins. Intermediary metabolites have been recognized as transcriptional regulators in bacteria and yeast. Our results now suggest that metabolite-controlled intracellular signaling systems are utilized by higher organisms.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Runx2 is a common target of transforming growth factor beta1 and bone morphogenetic protein 2, and cooperation between Runx2 and Smad5 induces osteoblast-specific gene expression in the pluripotent mesenchymal precursor cell line C2C12.

              When C2C12 pluripotent mesenchymal precursor cells are treated with transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), terminal differentiation into myotubes is blocked. Treatment with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) not only blocks myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells but also induces osteoblast differentiation. The molecular mechanisms governing the ability of TGF-beta1 and BMP-2 to both induce ligand-specific responses and inhibit myogenic differentiation are not known. We identified Runx2/PEBP2alphaA/Cbfa1, a global regulator of osteogenesis, as a major TGF-beta1-responsive element binding protein induced by TGF-beta1 and BMP-2 in C2C12 cells. Consistent with the observation that Runx2 can be induced by either TGF-beta1 or BMP-2, the exogenous expression of Runx2 mediated some of the effects of TGF-beta1 and BMP-2 but not osteoblast-specific gene expression. Runx2 mimicked common effects of TGF-beta1 and BMP-2 by inducing expression of matrix gene products (for example, collagen and fibronectin), suppressing MyoD expression, and inhibiting myotube formation of C2C12 cells. For osteoblast differentiation, an additional effector, BMP-specific Smad protein, was required. Our results indicate that Runx2 is a major target gene shared by TGF-beta and BMP signaling pathways and that the coordinated action of Runx2 and BMP-activated Smads leads to the induction of osteoblast-specific gene expression in C2C12 cells.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                16 November 2019
                November 2019
                : 24
                : 22
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pathobiochemistry, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094, Japan
                [2 ]Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hiroshima International University, 5-1-1, Hirokoshingai, Kure, Hiroshima 737-0112, Japan; y-iguchi@ 123456hirokoku-u.ac.jp (Y.I.); y-yamasi@ 123456hirokoku-u.ac.jp (Y.Y.)
                [3 ]Computer-aided Molecular Modeling Research Center, Kansai (CAMM-Kansai), 3-32-302, Tsuto-Otsuka, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8241, Japan; ke.gohda@ 123456camm-kansai.org
                [4 ]Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hiroshima International University, 5-1-1, Hirokoshingai, Kure, Hiroshima 737-0112, Japan; n-teno@ 123456hirokoku-u.ac.jp
                [5 ]Faculty of Clinical Nutrition, Hiroshima International University, 5-1-1, Hirokoshingai, Kure, Hiroshima 737-0112, Japan
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: fujimori@ 123456gly.oups.ac.jp ; Tel.: +81-72-690-1215
                Article
                molecules-24-04155
                10.3390/molecules24224155
                6891315
                31744088
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                bone, mesenchymal stem cells, fxr, agonist, osteoblast

                Comments

                Comment on this article