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      Permafrost response to temperature rise in carbon and nutrient cycling: Effects from habitat‐specific conditions and factors of warming


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          Permafrost is experiencing climate warming at a rate that is two times faster than the rest of the Earth's surface. However, it is still lack of a quantitative basis for predicting the functional stability of permafrost ecosystems in carbon (C) and nutrient cycling. We compiled the data of 708 observations from 89 air‐warming experiments in the Northern Hemisphere and characterized the general effects of temperature increase on permafrost C exchange and balance, biomass production, microbial biomass, soil nutrients, and vegetation N dynamics through a meta‐analysis. Also, an investigation was made on how responses might change with habitat‐specific (e.g., plant functional groups and soil moisture status) conditions and warming variables (e.g., warming phases, levels, and timing). The net ecosystem C exchange (NEE) was found to be downregulated by warming as a result of a stronger sensitivity to warming in respiration (15.6%) than in photosynthesis (6.2%). Vegetation usually responded to warming by investing more C to the belowground, as belowground biomass increased much more (30.1%) than aboveground biomass (2.9%). Warming had a minor effect on microbial biomass. Warming increased soil ammonium and nitrate concentrations. What's more, a synthesis of 70 observations from 11 herbs and 9 shrubs revealed a 2.5% decline of N in green leaves. Compared with herbs, shrubs had a stronger response to respiration and had a decline in green leaf N to a greater extent. Not only in dry condition did green leaf N decline with warming but also in wet conditions. Warming in nongrowing seasons would negatively affect soil water, C uptake, and biomass production during growing seasons. Permafrost C loss and vegetation N decline may increase with warming levels and timing. Overall, these findings suggest that besides a positive C cycling–climate feedback, there will be a negative feedback between permafrost nutrient cycling and climate warming.


          This work provides a quantitative and mechanistic basis for predicting the functional stability of permafrost C and N cycling under warmer climates.

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          A meta-analysis of the response of soil respiration, net nitrogen mineralization, and aboveground plant growth to experimental ecosystem warming

          Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions is predicted to raise the mean global temperature by 1.0-3.5°C in the next 50-100 years. The direct and indirect effects of this potential increase in temperature on terrestrial ecosystems and ecosystem processes are likely to be complex and highly varied in time and space. The Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme has recently launched a Network of Ecosystem Warming Studies, the goals of which are to integrate and foster research on ecosystem-level effects of rising temperature. In this paper, we use meta-analysis to synthesize data on the response of soil respiration, net N mineralization, and aboveground plant productivity to experimental ecosystem warming at 32 research sites representing four broadly defined biomes, including high (latitude or altitude) tundra, low tundra, grassland, and forest. Warming methods included electrical heat-resistance ground cables, greenhouses, vented and unvented field chambers, overhead infrared lamps, and passive night-time warming. Although results from individual sites showed considerable variation in response to warming, results from the meta-analysis showed that, across all sites and years, 2-9 years of experimental warming in the range 0.3-6.0°C significantly increased soil respiration rates by 20% (with a 95% confidence interval of 18-22%), net N mineralization rates by 46% (with a 95% confidence interval of 30-64%), and plant productivity by 19% (with a 95% confidence interval of 15-23%). The response of soil respiration to warming was generally larger in forested ecosystems compared to low tundra and grassland ecosystems, and the response of plant productivity was generally larger in low tundra ecosystems than in forest and grassland ecosystems. With the exception of aboveground plant productivity, which showed a greater positive response to warming in colder ecosystems, the magnitude of the response of these three processes to experimental warming was not generally significantly related to the geographic, climatic, or environmental variables evaluated in this analysis. This underscores the need to understand the relative importance of specific factors (such as temperature, moisture, site quality, vegetation type, successional status, land-use history, etc.) at different spatial and temporal scales, and suggests that we should be cautious in "scaling up" responses from the plot and site level to the landscape and biome level. Overall, ecosystem-warming experiments are shown to provide valuable insights on the response of terrestrial ecosystems to elevated temperature.
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            Climate change and the permafrost carbon feedback.

            Large quantities of organic carbon are stored in frozen soils (permafrost) within Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. A warming climate can induce environmental changes that accelerate the microbial breakdown of organic carbon and the release of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane. This feedback can accelerate climate change, but the magnitude and timing of greenhouse gas emission from these regions and their impact on climate change remain uncertain. Here we find that current evidence suggests a gradual and prolonged release of greenhouse gas emissions in a warming climate and present a research strategy with which to target poorly understood aspects of permafrost carbon dynamics.
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              Soil microbiomes and climate change

              The soil microbiome governs biogeochemical cycling of macronutrients, micronutrients and other elements vital for the growth of plants and animal life. Understanding and predicting the impact of climate change on soil microbiomes and the ecosystem services they provide present a grand challenge and major opportunity as we direct our research efforts towards one of the most pressing problems facing our planet. In this Review, we explore the current state of knowledge about the impacts of climate change on soil microorganisms in different climate-sensitive soil ecosystems, as well as potential ways that soil microorganisms can be harnessed to help mitigate the negative consequences of climate change.

                Author and article information

                Ecol Evol
                Ecol Evol
                Ecology and Evolution
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                27 October 2021
                November 2021
                : 11
                : 22 ( doiID: 10.1002/ece3.v11.22 )
                : 16021-16033
                [ 1 ] National‐Regional Joint Engineering Research Center for Soil Pollution Control and Remediation in South China Guangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Agro‐environmental Pollution Control and Management Institute of Eco‐environmental and Soil Sciences Guangdong Academy of Sciences Guangzhou China
                [ 2 ] Hainan Key Laboratory of Tropical Eco‐Circular Agriculture Environment and Plant Protection Institute Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences Haikou China
                [ 3 ] Hainan Danzhou Tropical Agro‐ecosystem National Observation and Research Station Danzhou China
                [ 4 ] School of Environment Henan Normal University Xinxiang China
                [ 5 ] Key Laboratory of Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control Ministry of Education Beijing China
                [ 6 ] Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Xingliang Xu, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

                Email: xuxingl@ 123456hotmail.com

                Author information
                © 2021 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 30 September 2021
                : 26 February 2021
                : 12 October 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 0, Pages: 13, Words: 10921
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China , doi 10.13039/501100001809;
                Award ID: 32001209
                Funded by: Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation
                Award ID: 2019A1515011559
                Funded by: GDAS' Project of Science and Technology Development
                Award ID: 2019GDASYL‐0102002‐1
                Funded by: Guangdong Introducing Innovative and Entrepreneurial Talents
                Award ID: 2017GC010570
                Funded by: Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangzhou
                Award ID: 202002020072
                Funded by: The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research (STEP) Program
                Award ID: 2019QZKK0302
                Research Article
                Research Articles
                Custom metadata
                November 2021
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.0.9 mode:remove_FC converted:18.11.2021

                Evolutionary Biology
                carbon cycling,climate warming,meta‐analysis,permafrost,progressive nitrogen limitation


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