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      The Effect of tRNA[Ser]Sec Isopentenylation on Selenoprotein Expression

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          Abstract

          Transfer RNA[Ser]Sec carries multiple post-transcriptional modifications. The A37G mutation in tRNA[Ser]Sec abrogates isopentenylation of base 37 and has a profound effect on selenoprotein expression in mice. Patients with a homozygous pathogenic p.R323Q variant in tRNA-isopentenyl-transferase (TRIT1) show a severe neurological disorder, and hence we wondered whether selenoprotein expression was impaired. Patient fibroblasts with the homozygous p.R323Q variant did not show a general decrease in selenoprotein expression. However, recombinant human TRIT1R323Q had significantly diminished activities towards several tRNA substrates in vitro. We thus engineered mice conditionally deficient in Trit1 in hepatocytes and neurons. Mass-spectrometry revealed that hypermodification of U34 to mcm5Um occurs independently of isopentenylation of A37 in tRNA[Ser]Sec. Western blotting and 75Se metabolic labeling showed only moderate effects on selenoprotein levels and 75Se incorporation. A detailed analysis of Trit1-deficient liver using ribosomal profiling demonstrated that UGA/Sec re-coding was moderately affected in Selenop, Txnrd1, and Sephs2, but not in Gpx1. 2′O-methylation of U34 in tRNA[Ser]Sec depends on FTSJ1, but does not affect UGA/Sec re-coding in selenoprotein translation. Taken together, our results show that a lack of isopentenylation of tRNA[Ser]Sec affects UGA/Sec read-through but differs from a A37G mutation.

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          Most cited references66

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          Regulation of Selenium Metabolism and Transport.

          Selenium is regulated in the body to maintain vital selenoproteins and to avoid toxicity. When selenium is limiting, cells utilize it to synthesize the selenoproteins most important to them, creating a selenoprotein hierarchy in the cell. The liver is the central organ for selenium regulation and produces excretory selenium forms to regulate whole-body selenium. It responds to selenium deficiency by curtailing excretion and secreting selenoprotein P (Sepp1) into the plasma at the expense of its intracellular selenoproteins. Plasma Sepp1 is distributed to tissues in relation to their expression of the Sepp1 receptor apolipoprotein E receptor-2, creating a tissue selenium hierarchy. N-terminal Sepp1 forms are taken up in the renal proximal tubule by another receptor, megalin. Thus, the regulated whole-body pool of selenium is shifted to needy cells and then to vital selenoproteins in them to supply selenium where it is needed, creating a whole-body selenoprotein hierarchy.
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            The expanding world of tRNA modifications and their disease relevance

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              Culturing pyramidal neurons from the early postnatal mouse hippocampus and cortex.

              The ability to culture and maintain postnatal mouse hippocampal and cortical neurons is highly advantageous, particularly for studies on genetically engineered mouse models. Here we present a protocol to isolate and culture pyramidal neurons from the early postnatal (P0-P1) mouse hippocampus and cortex. These low-density dissociated cultures are grown on poly-L-lysine-coated glass substrates without feeder layers. Cultured neurons survive well, develop extensive axonal and dendritic arbors, express neuronal and synaptic markers, and form functional synaptic connections. Further, they are highly amenable to low- and high-efficiency transfection and time-lapse imaging. This optimized cell culture technique can be used to culture and maintain neurons for a variety of applications including immunocytochemistry, biochemical studies, shRNA-mediated knockdown and live imaging studies. The preparation of the glass substrate must begin 5 d before the culture. The dissection and plating out of neurons takes 3-4 h and neurons can be maintained in culture for up to 4 weeks.
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                Journal
                IJMCFK
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                IJMS
                MDPI AG
                1422-0067
                November 2021
                October 23 2021
                : 22
                : 21
                : 11454
                Article
                10.3390/ijms222111454
                34768885
                8265bf65-9e00-4ed7-919b-8590461f7839
                © 2021

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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