Renal function was assessed in 20 (11 female and 9 male, age 21-76 years, mean 53) renal patients with a creatinine clearance 25-145 ml/min, mean 95, to evaluate the effects of iohexol, a non-ionic low-osmolar contrast medium. Intravenous urography was performed in 16 patients and computed body tomography in 4, using a dose of iohexol ranged between 0.6-3.3 (mean 1.17) g/kg b.w. Different parameters of renal function were determined in the week preceding and 1, 3 and 5 days after the administration of iohexol. The principal renal effect of iohexol was an increase of urinary alanine aminopeptidase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase. The maximum increase of enzymuria was observed on day 1 after the administration of iohexol. In most cases enzymes returned to base-line values within 3 days. No relevant variation of renal hemodynamics (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow) was observed after iohexol. In conclusion, iohexol can increase of urinary enzymes, but the effect is rapidly reversible and is not accompanied by a clinically significant impairment of renal hemodynamics.