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      Revesz syndrome revisited

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          Abstract

          Background

          Revesz syndrome (RS) is an extremely rare variant of dyskeratosis congenita (DKC) with only anecdotal reports in the literature.

          Methods

          To further characterize the typical features and natural course of the disease, we screened the English literature and summarized the clinical and epidemiological features of previously published RS cases. In addition, we herein describe the first recorded patient in central Europe.

          Results

          The literature review included 18 children. Clinical features are summarized, indicating a low prevalence of the classical DKC triad. All patients experienced early bone marrow failure, in most cases within the second year of life (median age 1.5 years; 95% CI 1.4–1.6). Retinopathy occurred typically between 6 and 18 months of age (median age 1.1 years; 95% CI 0.7–1.5). The incidence of seizures was low and was present in an estimated 20% of patients. The onset of seizures was exclusively during early childhood. The Kaplan–Meier estimate of survival was dismal (median survival 6.5 years; 95% CI 3.6–9.4), and none of the patients survived beyond the age of 12 years. Stem cell transplantation (SCT) was performed in eight children, and after a median of 22 months from SCT four of these patients were alive at the last follow up visit.

          Conclusion

          RS is a severe variant of DKC with early bone marrow failure and retinopathy in all patients. Survival is dismal, but stem cell transplantation may be performed successfully and might improve prognosis in the future.

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          Most cited references 67

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          Mutations in CTC1, encoding conserved telomere maintenance component 1, cause Coats plus.

          Coats plus is a highly pleiotropic disorder particularly affecting the eye, brain, bone and gastrointestinal tract. Here, we show that Coats plus results from mutations in CTC1, encoding conserved telomere maintenance component 1, a member of the mammalian homolog of the yeast heterotrimeric CST telomeric capping complex. Consistent with the observation of shortened telomeres in an Arabidopsis CTC1 mutant and the phenotypic overlap of Coats plus with the telomeric maintenance disorders comprising dyskeratosis congenita, we observed shortened telomeres in three individuals with Coats plus and an increase in spontaneous γH2AX-positive cells in cell lines derived from two affected individuals. CTC1 is also a subunit of the α-accessory factor (AAF) complex, stimulating the activity of DNA polymerase-α primase, the only enzyme known to initiate DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. Thus, CTC1 may have a function in DNA metabolism that is necessary for but not specific to telomeric integrity.
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            Telomere length is associated with disease severity and declines with age in dyskeratosis congenita.

            Dyskeratosis congenita is a cancer-prone bone marrow failure syndrome caused by aberrations in telomere biology. We studied 65 patients with dyskeratosis congenita and 127 unaffected relatives. Telomere length was measured by automated multicolor flow fluorescence in situ hybridization in peripheral blood leukocyte subsets. We age-adjusted telomere length using Z-scores (standard deviations from the mean for age). We confirmed that telomere lengths below the first percentile for age are very sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of dyskeratosis congenita. We provide evidence that lymphocytes alone and not granulocytes may suffice for clinical screening, while lymphocyte subsets may be required for challenging cases, including identification of silent carriers. We show for the first time using flow fluorescence in situ hybridization that the shortest telomeres are associated with severe variants (Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson and Revesz syndromes), mutations in DKC1, TINF2, or unknown genes, and moderate or severe aplastic anemia. In the first longitudinal follow up of dyskeratosis congenita patients, we demonstrate that telomere lengths decline with age, in contrast to the apparent stable telomere length observed in cross-sectional data. Telomere length by flow fluorescence in situ hybridization is an important diagnostic test for dyskeratosis congenita; age-adjusted values provide a quantitative measure of disease severity (clinical subset, mutated gene, and degree of bone marrow failure). Patients with dyskeratosis congenita have accelerated telomere shortening. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT00027274).
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              TINF2 mutations result in very short telomeres: analysis of a large cohort of patients with dyskeratosis congenita and related bone marrow failure syndromes

              Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a multisystem bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by a triad of mucocutaneous abnormalities and a predisposition to cancer. The genetic basis of DC remains unknown in more than 60% of patients. Mutations have been identified in components of the telomerase complex (dyskerin, TERC, TERT, NOP10, and NHP2), and recently in one component of the shelterin complex TIN2 (gene TINF2). To establish the role of TINF2 mutations, we screened DNA from 175 uncharacterised patients with DC as well as 244 patients with other bone marrow failure disorders. Heterozygous coding mutations were found in 33 of 175 previously uncharacterized DC index patients and 3 of 244 other patients. A total of 21 of the mutations affected amino acid 282, changing arginine to histidine (n = 14) or cysteine (n = 7). A total of 32 of 33 patients with DC with TINF2 mutations have severe disease, with most developing aplastic anaemia by the age of 10 years. Telomere lengths in patients with TINF2 mutations were the shortest compared with other DC subtypes, but TERC levels were normal. In this large series, TINF2 mutations account for approximately 11% of all DC, but they do not play a significant role in patients with related disorders. This study emphasises the role of defective telomere maintenance on human disease.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                michael.karremann@umm.de
                Journal
                Orphanet J Rare Dis
                Orphanet J Rare Dis
                Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
                BioMed Central (London )
                1750-1172
                23 October 2020
                23 October 2020
                2020
                : 15
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.411778.c, ISNI 0000 0001 2162 1728, Department of Pediatrics, , University Medical Center Mannheim, ; Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim, Germany
                [2 ]GRID grid.411778.c, ISNI 0000 0001 2162 1728, Department of Neuroradiology, , University Medical Center Mannheim, ; Mannheim, Germany
                [3 ]GRID grid.411778.c, ISNI 0000 0001 2162 1728, Department of Ophthalmology, , University Medical Center Mannheim, ; Mannheim, Germany
                [4 ]GRID grid.412301.5, ISNI 0000 0000 8653 1507, Department of Hematology and Oncology, , University Hospital of RWTH Aachen, ; Aachen, Germany
                [5 ]SYNLAB Center for Human Genetics Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany
                [6 ]GRID grid.411088.4, ISNI 0000 0004 0578 8220, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Stem Cell Transplantation, , University Hospital Frankfurt, ; Frankfurt, Germany
                Article
                1553
                10.1186/s13023-020-01553-y
                7583287
                33097095
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funding
                Funded by: Projekt DEAL
                Categories
                Review
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                © The Author(s) 2020

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