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      Phylogeography, species delimitation and population structure of a Western Australian short-range endemic mite harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones: Pettalidae: Karripurcellia)

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      Evolutionary Systematics

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The mite harvestmen of the genus Karripurcellia Giribet, 2003 are endemic to the tall, wet eucalypt forests of south-western Western Australia, a region known as a hotspot for biodiversity. Currently, there are two accepted species, K. peckorum Giribet, 2003 and K. sierwaldae Giribet, 2003, both with type localities within the Warren National Park. We obtained 65 COI mtDNA sequences from across the entire distributional range of the genus. These sequences, falling into two to three geographically separate groups, probably correspond to two species. Morphologically, all of the studied specimens correspond to K. peckorum, suggesting cryptic speciation within that species. A few common haplotypes occur in more than one population, but most haplotypes are confined to a single population. As a result, populations are genetically differentiated and gene flow after initial colonization appears to be very limited or completely lacking. Our study provides another example of short-range endemism in an invertebrate from the south-western mesic biome.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Biogeographical Aspects of Speciation in the Southwest Australian Flora

           S D Hopper (1979)
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            Competitive exclusion: phylogeography's 'elephant in the room'?

            Phylogeographic and evolutionary research programmes have successfully elucidated compelling genetic signatures of earth history. Particularly influential achievements include the demonstration of postglacial recolonization patterns for high-latitude taxa and phylogenetic demonstration of the 'progression rule' along oceanic island chains such as Hawaii. While both of these major biogeographic patterns clearly rely on rapid dispersal over long distances, their phylogeographic detection also apparently relies on the competitive exclusion of secondary dispersers. Such exclusion could occur either between or within species and might reflect fitness differences between lineages or, alternatively, neutral demographic processes (e.g. 'high-density blocking'). Regardless, such spatial genetic patterns would be rapidly eroded were it not for the failure of subsequent dispersers to contribute genetically to newly colonized populations. In addition to its role in revealing colonization patterns, competitive exclusion may also explain the maintenance of historic phylogeographic disjunctions long after the original physical barriers to dispersal have ceased to exist. Additionally, some of the most persuasive evidence of competitive exclusion comes from studies of anthropogenic extinction, where surviving lineages have subsequently expanded their ranges, apparently benefitting from the demise of their prehistoric sisters. Broadly, these biogeographic paradigms are united by the 'disconnect' between dispersal and colonization success, the latter being heavily influenced by inter- and intraspecific competition. Despite its apparent importance, such exclusion (especially within species) has received virtually no attention in the phylogeographic literature. Future studies should aim to test directly for the role of competitive exclusion in constraining the biogeography of highly dispersive taxa. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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              Deep genetic divergences in Aoraki denticulata (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi): a widespread 'mite harvestman' defies DNA taxonomy.

              Aoraki denticulata (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi, Pettalidae), a widespread 'mite harvestman' endemic to the South Island of New Zealand, is found in leaf littler habitats throughout Nelson and Marlborough, and as far south as Arthur's Pass. We investigated the phylogeography and demographic history of A. denticulata in the first genetic population-level study within Opiliones. A total of 119 individuals from 17 localities were sequenced for 785 bp of the gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I; 102 of these individuals were from the Aoraki subspecies A. denticulata denticulata and the remaining 17 were from the subspecies A. denticulata major. An extraordinarily high degree of genetic diversity was discovered in A. denticulata denticulata, with average uncorrected p-distances between populations as high as 19.2%. AMOVA, average numbers of pairwise differences, and pairwise F(ST) values demonstrated a significant amount of genetic diversity both within and between populations of this subspecies. Phylogenetic analysis of the data set revealed many well-supported groups within A. denticulata denticulata, generally corresponding to clusters of specimens from single populations with short internal branches, but separated by long branches from individuals from other populations. No haplotypes were shared between populations of the widespread small subspecies, A. denticulata denticulata. These results indicate a subspecies within which very little genetic exchange occurs between populations, a result consistent with the idea that Cyphophthalmi are poor dispersers. The highly structured populations and deep genetic divergences observed in A. denticulata denticulata may indicate the presence of cryptic species. However, we find a highly conserved morphology across sampling localities and large genetic divergences within populations from certain localities, equivalent to those typically found between populations from different localities. Past geological events may have contributed to the deep genetic divergences observed between sampling localities; additionally, the high divergence within populations of A. denticulata denticulata suggests that the rate of COI evolution may be accelerated in this taxon. In contrast, the larger subspecies A. denticulata major shows much less differentiation between and within sampling localities, suggesting that it may disperse more easily than its smaller counterpart. The fact that the remarkable genetic divergences within populations of A. denticulata denticulata from certain localities are equivalent to divergences between localities poses a challenge to the rapidly spreading practice of DNA taxonomy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Evolutionary Systematics
                EvolSyst
                Pensoft Publishers
                2535-0730
                June 26 2018
                June 26 2018
                : 2
                : 1
                : 81-87
                Article
                10.3897/evolsyst.2.25274
                © 2018

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