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      hiPSC‐derived iMSCs: NextGen MSCs as an advanced therapeutically active cell resource for regenerative medicine

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          Abstract

          Mesenchymal stem cells ( MSCs) are being assessed for ameliorating the severity of graft‐versus‐host disease, autoimmune conditions, musculoskeletal injuries and cardiovascular diseases. While most of these clinical therapeutic applications require substantial cell quantities, the number of MSCs that can be obtained initially from a single donor remains limited. The utility of MSCs derived from human‐induced pluripotent stem cells (hi PSCs) has been shown in recent pre‐clinical studies. Since adult MSCs have limited capability regarding proliferation, the quantum of bioactive factor secretion and immunomodulation ability may be constrained. Hence, the alternate source of MSCs is being considered to replace the commonly used adult tissue‐derived MSCs. The MSCs have been obtained from various adult and foetal tissues. The hi PSC‐derived MSCs ( iMSCs) are transpiring as an attractive source of MSCs because during reprogramming process, cells undergo rejuvination, exhibiting better cellular vitality such as survival, proliferation and differentiations potentials. The autologous iMSCs could be considered as an inexhaustible source of MSCs that could be used to meet the unmet clinical needs. Human‐induced PSC‐derived MSCs are reported to be superior when compared to the adult MSCs regarding cell proliferation, immunomodulation, cytokines profiles, microenvironment modulating exosomes and bioactive paracrine factors secretion. Strategies such as derivation and propagation of iMSCs in chemically defined culture conditions and use of footprint‐free safer reprogramming strategies have contributed towards the development of clinically relevant cell types. In this review, the role of i PSC‐derived mesenchymal stromal cells ( iMSCs) as an alternate source of therapeutically active MSCs has been described. Additionally, we also describe the role of iMSCs in regenerative medical applications, the necessary strategies, and the regulatory policies that have to be enforced to render iMSC's effectiveness in translational medicine.

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          Most cited references 224

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          Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors.

          Differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to an embryonic-like state by transfer of nuclear contents into oocytes or by fusion with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Little is known about factors that induce this reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic or adult fibroblasts by introducing four factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4, under ES cell culture conditions. Unexpectedly, Nanog was dispensable. These cells, which we designated iPS (induced pluripotent stem) cells, exhibit the morphology and growth properties of ES cells and express ES cell marker genes. Subcutaneous transplantation of iPS cells into nude mice resulted in tumors containing a variety of tissues from all three germ layers. Following injection into blastocysts, iPS cells contributed to mouse embryonic development. These data demonstrate that pluripotent stem cells can be directly generated from fibroblast cultures by the addition of only a few defined factors.
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            Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors.

            Successful reprogramming of differentiated human somatic cells into a pluripotent state would allow creation of patient- and disease-specific stem cells. We previously reported generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, capable of germline transmission, from mouse somatic cells by transduction of four defined transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate the generation of iPS cells from adult human dermal fibroblasts with the same four factors: Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. Human iPS cells were similar to human embryonic stem (ES) cells in morphology, proliferation, surface antigens, gene expression, epigenetic status of pluripotent cell-specific genes, and telomerase activity. Furthermore, these cells could differentiate into cell types of the three germ layers in vitro and in teratomas. These findings demonstrate that iPS cells can be generated from adult human fibroblasts.
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              Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells.

              Human mesenchymal stem cells are thought to be multipotent cells, which are present in adult marrow, that can replicate as undifferentiated cells and that have the potential to differentiate to lineages of mesenchymal tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat, tendon, muscle, and marrow stroma. Cells that have the characteristics of human mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from marrow aspirates of volunteer donors. These cells displayed a stable phenotype and remained as a monolayer in vitro. These adult stem cells could be induced to differentiate exclusively into the adipocytic, chondrocytic, or osteocytic lineages. Individual stem cells were identified that, when expanded to colonies, retained their multilineage potential.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cell Mol Med
                J. Cell. Mol. Med
                10.1111/(ISSN)1582-4934
                JCMM
                Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                1582-1838
                1582-4934
                21 April 2016
                August 2016
                : 20
                : 8 ( doiID: 10.1111/jcmm.2016.20.issue-8 )
                : 1571-1588
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Center for Stem Cell Research A Unit of inStem BengaluruChristian Medical College Vellore Tamil NaduIndia
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence to: Sanjay KUMAR, Ph.D.

                E‐mail: skumar@ 123456cmcvellore.ac.in

                Article
                JCMM12839
                10.1111/jcmm.12839
                4956943
                27097531
                © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Pages: 18
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: DBT
                Award ID: BT/PR8527/MED/31/234/2013
                Award ID: BT/PR8742/AGR/36/773/2013
                Award ID: BT/PR15420/MED/31/122/2011
                Categories
                Review Article
                Review Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                jcmm12839
                August 2016
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:4.9.2 mode:remove_FC converted:22.07.2016

                Molecular medicine

                mesenchymal stem cells, imscs, hipscs, induced pluripotent stem cells, mscs

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