Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are the final common pathway for the central control of reproduction. The coordinated and timely activation of these hypothalamic neurons, which determines sexual development and adult reproductive function, lies under the tight control of a complex array of excitatory and inhibitory transsynaptic inputs. In addition, research conducted over the past 20 years has unveiled the major contribution of glial cells to the control of GnRH neurons. Glia use a variety of molecular and cellular strategies to modulate GnRH neuronal function both at the level of their cell bodies and at their nerve terminals. These mechanisms include the secretion of bioactive molecules that exert paracrine effects on GnRH neurons, juxtacrine interactions between glial cells and GnRH neurons via adhesive molecules and the morphological plasticity of the glial coverage of GnRH neurons. It now appears that glial cells are integral components, along with upstream neuronal networks, of the central control of GnRH neuronal function. This review attempts to summarize our current knowledge of the mechanisms used by glial cells to control GnRH neuronal activity and secretion.