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      Phenotypic diversity in an endangered freshwater fish Squalius microlepis (Actinopterygii, Leuciscidae)

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          Squalius microlepis was examined from recent and historical collections within the known range of the species with special emphasis on intraspecific variability and variations, and compared to its closest relative species S. tenellus (in total, 193 specimens; 33 absolute and 52 proportional measurements and ratios, and 12 counts including vertebrae). Squalius tenellus was perfectly differentiated in all statistical analyses and can be diagnosed by 76–95 (vs. 64–80) scales in lateral series, 68–83 (vs. 58–77) lateral-line scales, (17)18–20 (vs. 13–16(17)) scales above lateral line, and (7)8–10 (vs. 4–7) scales below lateral line. Squalius microlepis was morphologically heterogeneous, with two phenotypes readily distinguishable (phenotype 1 corresponding to S. microlepis s. str. as defined by its lectotype) by a combination of many characters; those contributing most to the discrimination were number of gill rakers, length of lower jaw (% interorbital width), and head length (% SL). Only phenotype 1 was found in the Ričina-Prološko Blato-Vrljika karst system; most of the specimens from the lower Matica and the Tihaljina-Trebižat karst system were identified as phenotype 2; the sample from karstic poljes near Vrgorac contained both phenotype 1 and 2, and individuals of intermediate morphology. As very limited molecular data exist on the two phenotypes of S. microlepis , we refrain from any taxonomic conclusions until new molecular approaches (and new markers) are used. We also report on a dramatic reduction of the area of distribution and abundance of S. microlepis in recent years.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Cryptic species as a window on diversity and conservation.

          The taxonomic challenge posed by cryptic species (two or more distinct species classified as a single species) has been recognized for nearly 300 years, but the advent of relatively inexpensive and rapid DNA sequencing has given biologists a new tool for detecting and differentiating morphologically similar species. Here, we synthesize the literature on cryptic and sibling species and discuss trends in their discovery. However, a lack of systematic studies leaves many questions open, such as whether cryptic species are more common in particular habitats, latitudes or taxonomic groups. The discovery of cryptic species is likely to be non-random with regard to taxon and biome and, hence, could have profound implications for evolutionary theory, biogeography and conservation planning.
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            Resource polymorphisms in vertebrates.

            Discrete resource polymorphisms occur in various vertebrate species and probably occur more frequently than is generally appreciated. They are manifested in a number of ways, including morphological, behavioral and life history characters. Research on a number of unrelated taxa suggests that resource polymorphisms may be underestimated as a diversifying force and potentially play important roles in population divergence and initial steps in speciation. In an ecological context, they are important in resource partitioning and reducing intraspecific competition. Recent research suggests that the mechanisms maintaining these polymorphisms may be similar in diverse taxa, that phenotypic plasticity is important, and that some are under simple genetic control.
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              Habitat-associated morphological divergence in two Neotropical fish species

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2019
                09 December 2019
                : 897
                : 115-147
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Burgring 7, Vienna 1010, Austria Naturhistorisches Museum Wien Vienna Austria
                [2 ] Croatian Institute of Fisheries and Marine Ecology, 8 Konsulska St, Berdyansk, 71118, Ukraine Croatian Institute of Fisheries and Marine Ecology Berdyansk Ukraine
                [3 ] Dolsko 14, 1262 Slovenia Unaffiliated Dolsko Slovenia
                [4 ] Institute for Biodiversity, Croatian Biological Research Society, 7 Lipovac I, 10000, Zagreb, Croatia Institute for Biodiversity, Croatian Biological Research Society Zagreb Croatia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Nina G. Bogutskaya ( nina.bogutskaya@ 123456nhm-wien.ac.at )

                Academic editor: M. E. Bichuette

                Article
                38768
                10.3897/zookeys.897.38768
                6914709
                Nina G. Bogutskaya, Oleg A. Diripasko, Primož Zupančič, Dušan Jelić, Alexander Naseka

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Austrian Science Fund 501100002428 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100002428
                Categories
                Research Article
                Animalia
                Chordata
                Osteichthyes
                Pisces
                Vertebrata
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Cenozoic
                Europe
                Southern Europe and Mediterranean

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