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      Gut Microbiome Critically Impacts PCB-induced Changes in Metabolic Fingerprints and the Hepatic Transcriptome in Mice

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          Abstract

          Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously detected and have been linked to metabolic diseases. Gut microbiome is recognized as a critical regulator of disease susceptibility; however, little is known how PCBs and gut microbiome interact to modulate hepatic xenobiotic and intermediary metabolism. We hypothesized the gut microbiome regulates PCB-mediated changes in the metabolic fingerprints and hepatic transcriptome. Ninety-day-old female conventional and germ-free mice were orally exposed to the Fox River Mixture (synthetic PCB mixture, 6 or 30 mg/kg) or corn oil (vehicle control, 10 ml/kg), once daily for 3 consecutive days. RNA-seq was conducted in liver, and endogenous metabolites were measured in liver and serum by LC-MS. Prototypical target genes of aryl hydrocarbon receptor, pregnane X receptor, and constitutive androstane receptor were more readily upregulated by PCBs in conventional conditions, indicating PCBs, to the hepatic transcriptome, act partly through the gut microbiome. In a gut microbiome-dependent manner, xenobiotic, and steroid metabolism pathways were upregulated, whereas response to misfolded proteins-related pathways was downregulated by PCBs. At the high PCB dose, NADP, and arginine appear to interact with drug-metabolizing enzymes (ie, Cyp1–3 family), which are highly correlated with Ruminiclostridium and Roseburia, providing a novel explanation of gut-liver interaction from PCB-exposure. Utilizing the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures L1000 database, therapeutics targeting anti-inflammatory and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways are predicted to be remedies that can mitigate PCB toxicity. Our findings demonstrate that habitation of the gut microbiota drives PCB-mediated hepatic responses. Our study adds knowledge of physiological response differences from PCB exposure and considerations for further investigations for gut microbiome-dependent therapeutics.

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          Most cited references 134

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          Is Open Access

          Moderated estimation of fold change and dispersion for RNA-seq data with DESeq2

          In comparative high-throughput sequencing assays, a fundamental task is the analysis of count data, such as read counts per gene in RNA-seq, for evidence of systematic changes across experimental conditions. Small replicate numbers, discreteness, large dynamic range and the presence of outliers require a suitable statistical approach. We present DESeq2, a method for differential analysis of count data, using shrinkage estimation for dispersions and fold changes to improve stability and interpretability of estimates. This enables a more quantitative analysis focused on the strength rather than the mere presence of differential expression. The DESeq2 package is available at http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/DESeq2.html. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13059-014-0550-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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            The Sequence Alignment/Map format and SAMtools

            Summary: The Sequence Alignment/Map (SAM) format is a generic alignment format for storing read alignments against reference sequences, supporting short and long reads (up to 128 Mbp) produced by different sequencing platforms. It is flexible in style, compact in size, efficient in random access and is the format in which alignments from the 1000 Genomes Project are released. SAMtools implements various utilities for post-processing alignments in the SAM format, such as indexing, variant caller and alignment viewer, and thus provides universal tools for processing read alignments. Availability: http://samtools.sourceforge.net Contact: rd@sanger.ac.uk
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              The SILVA ribosomal RNA gene database project: improved data processing and web-based tools

              SILVA (from Latin silva, forest, http://www.arb-silva.de) is a comprehensive web resource for up to date, quality-controlled databases of aligned ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences from the Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota domains and supplementary online services. The referred database release 111 (July 2012) contains 3 194 778 small subunit and 288 717 large subunit rRNA gene sequences. Since the initial description of the project, substantial new features have been introduced, including advanced quality control procedures, an improved rRNA gene aligner, online tools for probe and primer evaluation and optimized browsing, searching and downloading on the website. Furthermore, the extensively curated SILVA taxonomy and the new non-redundant SILVA datasets provide an ideal reference for high-throughput classification of data from next-generation sequencing approaches.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Toxicological Sciences
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                1096-6080
                1096-0929
                September 2020
                September 01 2020
                June 16 2020
                September 2020
                September 01 2020
                June 16 2020
                : 177
                : 1
                : 168-187
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195
                [2 ]Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242; and
                [3 ]Arizona Metabolomics Laboratory, School of Nutrition and Health Promotion, College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Scottsdale, Arizona 85259
                Article
                10.1093/toxsci/kfaa090
                © 2020

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