The kinetics of H2S oxidation in a biofilter were evaluated and the reaction rates determined to be first-order at low concentrations (< 200 ppm), zero-order at high concentrations (> 400 ppm), and fractional-order in the intermediate concentration range for H2S in the inlet waste gas. The overall performance of the biofilter system and changes in compost properties were investigated for 200 days of operation. The compost biofilter showed good buffering capacities to variations in gas flow rate and pollutant (H2S) loading impacts. Hydrogen sulfide removal efficiencies exceeding 99.9% were consistently observed. System acidification and sulfate accumulation were identified as inhibitors of required biological activity. Routine washing of the compost effectively mitigated these deficiencies. System upset was determined to be caused by compost dry-out or system overloading. Methods were developed to provide for recovery of contaminated filter material.