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      Anterior Segment Biometry During Accommodation and Effects of Cycloplegics by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          We analyzed changes in the crystalline lens during accommodation and the effects of cycloplegics by swept-source anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT).

          Materials and Methods

          Twenty healthy volunteers (7 males and 13 females, aged 22–34 years), with no history of eye disease except for refractive errors, were recruited. Biometric parameters, including anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), and anterior and posterior curvature of the lens (ACL and PCL), were measured using AS-OCT (CASIA2). The measurements were performed with or without an accommodative demand of 5.0 diopters (D). The same tests were repeated following the topical administration of 1% cyclopentolate or a compounding agent comprising 0.5% tropicamide and 0.5% phenylephrine.

          Results

          The AS-OCT system was capable of simultaneous visualization of all optical components of the anterior segment in a single frame. ACD, LAC, and LPC decreased and LT increased significantly during 5.0 D accommodative stimulation in both eyes. Both cyclopentolate and tropicamide/phenylephrine eyedrops led to deeper ACD, thinner LT, and flatter LAC. There were no significant differences in all lens parameters despite having 5.0 D accommodative stimulation in both eyes with cycloplegia.

          Conclusion

          Our results suggest that both tropicamide/phenylephrine and cyclopentolate eyedrops have enough cycloplegic effects in young adults.

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          Most cited references25

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          The eye in focus: accommodation and presbyopia.

          Current understanding of the anatomy, function and performance of the accommodative system of the young, adult human eye is outlined. Most major current models of the accommodative mechanism are based on Helmholtz's original ideas but, despite of a growing volume of related research, uncertainty continues over the relative contributions made to the overall mechanism by different ocular structures. The changes with age are then discussed. Although the amplitude of accommodation decreases steadily from later childhood, the speed and accuracy of the system within the available amplitude are little impaired until the age of about 40, when the amplitude falls below that needed for normal near work. A review of the available evidence on age-related change in the lens, capsule, ciliary body and other relevant ocular structures confirms that geometric and viscoelastic lenticular changes play major roles in the progressive loss of accommodation. Other factors may also contribute in an, as yet, unquantified way and a full understanding of the origins of presbyopic change remains elusive.
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            Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range.

            We present an application of in vivo anterior segment imaging of the human eye with an ultrahigh speed swept source OCT instrument. For this purpose, a dedicated OCT system was designed and constructed. This instrument enables axial zooming by automatic reconfiguration of spectral sweep range; an enhanced imaging range mode enables imaging of the entire anterior segment while a high axial resolution mode provides detailed morphological information of the chamber angle and the cornea. The speed of 200,000 lines/s enables high sampling density in three-dimensional imaging of the entire cornea in 250 ms promising future applications of OCT for optical corneal topography, pachymetry and elevation maps. The results of a preliminary quantitative corneal analysis based on OCT data free form motion artifacts are presented. Additionally, a volumetric and real time reconstruction of dynamic processes, like pupillary reaction to light stimulus or blink-induced contact lens movements are demonstrated. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America
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              Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments.

              A two- and three-dimensional swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system, which uses a ready-to-ship scanning light source, is demonstrated. The light source has a center wavelength of 1.31 mum, -3 dB wavelength range of 110 nm, scanning rate of 20 KHz, and high linearity in frequency scanning. This paper presents a simple calibration method using a fringe analysis technique for spectral rescaling. This SS-OCT system is capable of realtime display of two-dimensional OCT and can obtain three-dimensional OCT with a measurement time of 2 s. In vivo human anterior eye segments are investigated two- and three-dimensionally. The system sensitivity is experimentally determined to be 114 dB. The three-dimensional OCT volumes reveal the structures of the anterior eye segments, which are difficult to observe in two-dimensional OCT images.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clin Ophthalmol
                Clin Ophthalmol
                OPTH
                clinop
                Clinical Ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)
                Dove
                1177-5467
                1177-5483
                06 May 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 1237-1243
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Kyorin University School of Medicine , Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Masakazu Yamada Email yamadamasakazu@ks.kyorin-u.ac.jp
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5659-9599
                Article
                252474
                10.2147/OPTH.S252474
                7213076
                32440090
                82bb56ad-5206-4c8a-8334-6e42207f8beb
                © 2020 Mitsukawa et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                History
                : 04 March 2020
                : 21 April 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 27, Pages: 7
                Funding
                This study was supported by a grant (19FA1010) from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Japan.
                Categories
                Original Research

                Ophthalmology & Optometry
                accommodation,cycloplegics,lens,optical coherence tomography,refraction
                Ophthalmology & Optometry
                accommodation, cycloplegics, lens, optical coherence tomography, refraction

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