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      Efficacy of a collar impregnated with amitraz and pyriproxyfen for prevention of experimental tick infestations by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, and Ixodes scapularis in dogs

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      Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

      American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA)

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          Abstract

          To compare the efficacy of collars impregnated with 9% amitraz or 9% amitraz and 0.5% pyriproxyfen (PPF) for control of newly established tick infestations by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, and Ixodes scapularis in dogs and determine whether egg production by surviving female ticks was decreased. Prospective study. 72 dogs. Dogs were fitted with 1 of 3 test collars impregnated with amitraz, amitraz and PPF, or only excipients (untreated controls). In 3 trials corresponding to each of the 3 tick species, dogs were infested with 150 unfed adult ticks on days 8, 10, 13, and 18. The number of feeding female ticks was recorded on days 10, 13, 18, and 28. Surviving females were weighed and permitted to oviposit under controlled conditions. Collars impregnated with amitraz and PPF decreased tick loads as efficiently as collars containing amitraz alone. Inclusion of PPF into the collar did not significantly decrease the efficacy of amitraz. The few female ticks that survived after feeding on dogs treated with collars containing PPF were unable to oviposit. Collars impregnated with amitraz were efficient in preventing tick infestations in dogs but did not inhibit oviposition in the few surviving female ticks. Incorporation of PPF into the amitraz-impregnated collar resulted in impairment of the reproductive ability of ticks.

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          Inhibition of vitellogenin synthesis in Apis mellifera workers by a juvenile hormone analogue, pyriproxyfen.

          Insect juvenile hormone (JH) has been related to modulation of vitellogenin (Vg) synthesis, a protein produced by fat body cells, secreted in haemolymph and sequestered by developing oocytes. A stimulatory JH action has been described for the majority of species studied thus far. In some insects, however, Vg synthesis has been inhibited or unaffected by JH. The aim of this study was to re-examine the action of JH on Vg synthesis in Apis mellifera workers, since contrasting effects of this hormone were described. Newly emerged worker bees were treated with different doses of pyriproxyfen (PPN), a potent JH analogue. Vg and total protein were quantified in haemolymph samples of newly emerged up to 6-day-old worker bees. Protein synthesis activity of fat body cultured in vitro and ultrastructure of fat body cells were also examined. High doses (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 &mgr;g) of PPN inhibited the onset and accumulation of Vg in the haemolymph of young worker bees in a dose-dependent fashion. This inhibition was not a result of fat body cell degeneration or death, as illustrated by fat body cells ultrastructure analysis, but by impairing Vg synthesis, as demonstrated by in vitro culture of fat body cells. Low doses (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 &mgr;g) neither affected the normal synthesis and secretion of Vg into the haemolymph nor caused an early onset of Vg in treated bees (which could be interpreted as a JH-activating effect), as shown by Vg quantification at 24-h intervals. The results suggest that a low JH titre in honey bee workers permits the onset and accumulation of Vg in haemolymph, whereas high JH levels turn off Vg synthesis.
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            The juvenile hormone analog pyriproxyfen affects ecdysteroid-dependent cuticle melanization and shifts the pupal ecdysteroid peak in the honey bee (Apis mellifera).

            The control of the pupal melanization in the honey bee by ecdysteroids, and the modulation of these processes by a juvenile hormone analog were investigated by a combination of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Injection of 1-5 microg of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) into unpigmented pupae showed a dose- and stage-dependent effect. The higher the dose and the later the injection was performed, the more pronounced was the delay in cuticle pigmentation. This inhibition of cuticular melanization by artificially elevated ecdysteroid titers was corroborated by in vitro experiments, culturing integument from unpigmented, dark-eyed pupae for 1-4 days in the presence of 20E (2 or 5 microg/ml culture medium). Topical application (1 microg) of pyriproxyfen to unpigmented, white-eyed pupae had the opposite effect, leading to precocious and enhanced melanization of the pupal cuticle. In vitro incubation of integuments in the presence of this juvenile hormone analog (1 microg/ml) confirmed these results, showing that pyriproxyfen is apparently capable of triggering melanization. The in vivo mode of action of pyriproxyfen was further investigated by quantifying hemolymph ecdysteroids by radioimmunoassays. Topical application leads to a delay of the pupal ecdysteroid peak by 4 days. The pyriproxyfen-induced low ecdysteroid titers during early pupal development could account for precocious pigmentation by removing an inhibition on prophenoloxidase activation normally imposed by the elevated ecdysteroid titer during this phase.
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              Effects of Granular Carbaryl Application on Sympatric Populations ofIxodes scapularisandAmblyomma americanum(Acari: Ixodidae) Nymphs

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
                Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
                American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA)
                0003-1488
                January 2005
                January 2005
                : 226
                : 2
                : 221-224
                Article
                10.2460/javma.2005.226.221
                15706971
                © 2005

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