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      Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in brain and heart by Immunohistochemistry in a hospital-based autopsy series in Durango, Mexico

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          Abstract

          The presence of tissue cysts of Toxoplasma gondii has only poorly been investigated in autopsy series. We determined the presence of T. gondii cysts in a series of 51 autopsies in a public hospital using immunohistochemistry of brain and heart tissues. The association of tissue cysts with the general characteristics of the autopsy cases was also investigated.

          Of the 51 cases studied, five (9.8%) were positive by immunohistochemistry for T. gondii cysts in the brain. None of the heart specimens was positive for T. gondii cysts. The presence of T. gondii cysts in brains did not vary with age, sex, birthplace, residence, education, occupation, or the presence of pathology in the brain. In contrast, multivariate analysis showed that the presence of T. gondii cysts was associated with undernourishment (OR = 33.90; 95% CI: 2.82–406.32; P = 0.005).

          We demonstrated cerebral T. gondii cysts in an autopsy series in Durango City, Mexico. Results suggest that T. gondii can be more readily found in brain than in heart of infected individuals. This is the first report of an association between the presence of T. gondii in brains and undernourishment.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Toxoplasmosis: A history of clinical observations.

          It has been 100 years since Toxoplasma gondii was initially described in Tunis by Nicolle and Manceaux (1908) in the tissues of the gundi (Ctenodoactylus gundi) and in Brazil by Splendore (1908) in the tissues of a rabbit. Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, Apicomplexan parasite of warm-blooded animals that can cause several clinical syndromes including encephalitis, chorioretinitis, congenital infection and neonatal mortality. Fifteen years after the description of T. gondii by Nicolle and Manceaux a fatal case of toxoplasmosis in a child was reported by Janků. In 1939 Wolf, Cowen and Paige were the first to conclusively identify T. gondii as a cause of human disease. This review examines the clinical manifestations of infection with T. gondii and the history of the discovery of these manifestations.
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            Toxoplasmosis

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              Foodborne toxoplasmosis.

              Toxoplasmosis can be due to congenital infection or acquired infection after birth and is one of the leading illnesses associated with foodborne hospitalizations and deaths. Undercooked meat, especially pork, lamb, and wild game meat, and soil contaminated with cat feces on raw fruits and vegetables are the major sources of foodborne transmission for humans. The new trend in the production of free-range organically raised meat could increase the risk of Toxoplasma gondii contamination of meat. Foodborne transmission can be prevented by production practices that reduce T. gondii in meat, adequate cooking of meat, washing of raw fruits and vegetables, prevention of cross contamination in the kitchen, and measures that decrease spread of viable oocysts into the environment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                EUJMI
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                18 June 2015
                June 2015
                : 5
                : 2
                : 143-149
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Biomedical Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Juárez University of Durango State , Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Mexico
                [2 ]Institute for Scientific Research “Dr. Roberto Rivera-Damm”, Juárez University of Durango State , Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Mexico
                [3 ]Hospital General, Servicios de Salud de Durango , Durango, México, Cuauhtémoc 225 norte, 34000 Durango, Mexico
                [4 ]Institute for Microbiology and Hygiene , Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité Medical School, Hindenburgdamm 27, D-12203 Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                * Biomedical Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Juárez University of Durango State, Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Dgo, Mexico; Phone/Fax: +52-618 8130527; alvaradocosme@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                10.1556/1886.2015.00014
                4500065
                © 2015, The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 28, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Article

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