Corneal endothelium morphological abnormalities result in fluid imbalance, stromal swelling, and loss of transparency, thus impairing visual function. Recently, growing number of studies have focused on diabetic corneal abnormalities after cataract surgery and its comparison with non-diabetic patients, the results remain conflicting. Thus, to evaluate the effect of phacoemulsification on the corneal properties in diabetic and non-diabetic patients, prospective studies were comprehensively searched through PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases updated to Jan 2017. A meta-analysis of the 13 identified studies was performed using weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). For the dynamic changes between preoperative and postoperative values, significant differences were identified between the two groups in endothelial cell density (ECD) and hexagon cells (HC%) at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively, in central corneal thickness (CCT) at 1 month postoperatively, and in coefficient variation (CV) at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively. However, no significant differences were observed in CCT at 1 day, 1 week and 3 months postoperatively or in CV at 1 day and 3 months postoperatively. Diabetic corneas are more vulnerable to stress and trauma, resulting in greater morphological abnormalities and longer recovery time.