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      Clinical evaluation of corneal changes after phacoemulsification in diabetic and non-diabetic cataract patients, a systematic review and meta-analysis

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          Abstract

          Corneal endothelium morphological abnormalities result in fluid imbalance, stromal swelling, and loss of transparency, thus impairing visual function. Recently, growing number of studies have focused on diabetic corneal abnormalities after cataract surgery and its comparison with non-diabetic patients, the results remain conflicting. Thus, to evaluate the effect of phacoemulsification on the corneal properties in diabetic and non-diabetic patients, prospective studies were comprehensively searched through PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases updated to Jan 2017. A meta-analysis of the 13 identified studies was performed using weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). For the dynamic changes between preoperative and postoperative values, significant differences were identified between the two groups in endothelial cell density (ECD) and hexagon cells (HC%) at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively, in central corneal thickness (CCT) at 1 month postoperatively, and in coefficient variation (CV) at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively. However, no significant differences were observed in CCT at 1 day, 1 week and 3 months postoperatively or in CV at 1 day and 3 months postoperatively. Diabetic corneas are more vulnerable to stress and trauma, resulting in greater morphological abnormalities and longer recovery time.

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          Most cited references 50

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          Matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in connective tissue remodeling.

           J. Woessner (1991)
          Matrix metalloproteinases are an important group of zinc enzymes responsible for degradation of the extracellular matrix components such as collagen and proteoglycans in normal embryogenesis and remodeling and in many disease processes such as arthritis, cancer, periodontitis, and osteoporosis. A matrixin family is defined, comprising at least seven members that range in size from Mr 28,000 to 92,000 and are related in gene sequence to collagenase. All family members are secreted as zymogens that lose peptides of about 10,000 daltons upon activation. Latency is due to a conserved cysteine that binds to zinc at the active center. Latency is overcome by physical (chaotropic agents), chemical (HOCl, mercurials), and enzymatic (trypsin, plasmin) treatments that separate the cysteine residue from the zinc. Expression of the metalloproteinases is switched on by a variety of agents acting through regulatory elements of the gene, particularly the AP-1 binding site. A family of protein inhibitors of Mr 28,500 or less binds strongly and stoichiometrically in noncovalent fashion to inhibit members of the family. The serum protein alpha 2-macroglobulin and relatives are also strongly inhibitory.
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            Number of People Blind or Visually Impaired by Cataract Worldwide and in World Regions, 1990 to 2010.

            To estimate prevalence and number of people visually impaired or blind due to cataract.
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              Proliferative capacity of corneal endothelial cells.

               Jeffrey Joyce (2012)
              The corneal endothelial monolayer helps maintain corneal transparency through its barrier and ionic "pump" functions. This transparency function can become compromised, resulting in a critical loss in endothelial cell density (ECD), corneal edema, bullous keratopathy, and loss of visual acuity. Although penetrating keratoplasty and various forms of endothelial keratoplasty are capable of restoring corneal clarity, they can also have complications requiring re-grafting or other treatments. With the increasing worldwide shortage of donor corneas to be used for keratoplasty, there is a greater need to find new therapies to restore corneal clarity that is lost due to endothelial dysfunction. As a result, researchers have been exploring alternative approaches that could result in the in vivo induction of transient corneal endothelial cell division or the in vitro expansion of healthy endothelial cells for corneal bioengineering as treatments to increase ECD and restore visual acuity. This review presents current information regarding the ability of human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC) to divide as a basis for the development of new therapies. Information will be presented on the positive and negative regulation of the cell cycle as background for the studies to be discussed. Results of studies exploring the proliferative capacity of HCEC will be presented and specific conditions that affect the ability of HCEC to divide will be discussed. Methods that have been tested to induce transient proliferation of HCEC will also be presented. This review will discuss the effect of donor age and endothelial topography on relative proliferative capacity of HCEC, as well as explore the role of nuclear oxidative DNA damage in decreasing the relative proliferative capacity of HCEC. Finally, potential new research directions will be discussed that could take advantage of and/or improve the proliferative capacity of these physiologically important cells in order to develop new treatments to restore corneal clarity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                xlren@zju.edu.cn
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                26 October 2017
                26 October 2017
                2017
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Eye Center, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, P.R. China
                [2 ]Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, P.R. China
                Article
                14656
                10.1038/s41598-017-14656-7
                5658349
                29074989
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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