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      Lipoteichoic acids as a major virulence factor causing inflammatory responses via Toll-like receptor 2.

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          Abstract

          Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a major cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria, is associated with various inflammatory diseases ranging from minor skin diseases to severe sepsis. It is known that LTA is recognized by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), leading to the initiation of innate immune responses and further development of adaptive immunity. However, excessive immune responses may result in the inflammatory sequelae that are involved in severe diseases such as sepsis. Although numerous studies have tried to identify the molecular basis for the pathophysiology of Gram-positive bacterial infection, the exact role of LTA during the infection has not been clearly elucidated. This review provides an overview of LTA structure and host recognition by TLR2 that leads to the activation of innate immune responses. Emphasis is placed on differential immunostimulating activities of LTAs of various Gram-positive bacteria at the molecular level.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Arch. Pharm. Res.
          Archives of pharmacal research
          Springer Nature
          0253-6269
          0253-6269
          Nov 2016
          : 39
          : 11
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, DRI, and BK21 Plus Program, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Building 86, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.
          [2 ] Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.
          [3 ] Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, DRI, and BK21 Plus Program, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Building 86, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea. shhan-mi@snu.ac.kr.
          Article
          10.1007/s12272-016-0804-y
          10.1007/s12272-016-0804-y
          27498542
          82e1efe5-0aef-4054-9cbd-75535a2239c1

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