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      Vitro culture of axe-head glochidia in pink heelsplitter Potamilus alatus and mechanism of its high host specialists

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          Abstract

          The basal media M199 or MEM was utilized in the classical method of vitro culture of glochidia where 1–5% CO 2 was required to maintain stable physiological pH for completion of non-parasitic metamorphosis. The classical method encounters a great challenge to those glochidia which undergo development of visceral tissue but significantly increase in size during metamorphosis. The improved in vitro culture techniques and classical methods were firstly compared for non-parasitic metamorphosis and development of glochidia in pink heelsplitter. Based on the improved method, the optimal vitro culture media was further selected from 14 plasmas or sera, realizing the non-parasitic metamorphosis of axe-head glochidia for the first time. The results showed that addition of different plasma (serum) had significant effect on glochidial metamorphosis in pink heelsplitter. Only glochidia in the skewband grunt and red drum groups could complete metamorphosis, the metamorphosis rate in skewband grunt was 93.3±3.1% at 24±0.5°C, significantly higher than in marine and desalinated red drum. Heat-inactivated treatment on the plasma of yellow catfish and Barbus capito had significant effect on glochidia survival and shell growth. The metamorphosis rate also varied among different gravid period, and generally decreased with gravid time. Further comparison of free amino acid and fatty acid indicated that the taurine of high concentration was the only amino acid that might promote the rapid growth of glochidial shell, and the lack of adequate DPA and DHA might be an important reason leading to the abnormal foot and visceral development. Combined with our results of artificial selection of host fish, we tentatively established the mechanism of its host specialists in pink heelsplitter for the first time. This is the first report on non-parasite metamorphosis of axe-head glochidia based on our improved vitro culture method, which should provide important reference to fundamental theory research of glochidia metamorphosis and also benefit for better understand of mechanism of host specialists and generalists of Unionidae species.

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          Most cited references 31

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          PARASITISM AND THE UNIONACEA (BIVALVIA)

           PIETER KAT (1984)
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            The polyunsaturated fatty acids, EPA and DPA exert a protective effect in the hippocampus of the aged rat.

            Age is characterized by deficits in synaptic function identified by decreased performance of aged animals in spatial learning tasks and reduced ability of animals to sustain long term potentiation (LTP). Several cellular and molecular events are correlated with these deficits, many of which are indicative of age-related neuroinflammatory and oxidative cell stress. It is significant that agents which decrease microglial activation are commonly associated with restoration of function. We set out to examine whether the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), which is a metabolite of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), could modulate the age-related increase in microglial activation and the associated increase in oxidative changes and therefore impact on synaptic function in aged rats. We demonstrate that docosapentaenoic acid possesses neurorestorative effects and is capable of downregulating microglial activation. The data show that it also decreases the coupled activation of sphingomyelinase and caspase 3, probably because of its ability to decrease age-related oxidative changes, and consequently attenuates the age-related decrease in spatial learning and long-term potentiation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Inhibition of platelet aggregation by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is gender specific-Redefining platelet response to fish oils.

              Existence of gender differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) following long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCn-3 PUFA) supplementation have suggested that sex hormones play a role in cardio-protection. The objective of this study was to determine gender specific responses in the efficacy of LCn-3 PUFA to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. Blood was analyzed for collagen-induced platelet aggregation following pre-incubation with LCn-3 PUFA in healthy adults (n=42). Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was significantly more effective in reducing platelet aggregation compared with docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). When grouped by gender, this differential pattern was followed in males only. In females, DHA, DPA and EPA were all equally effective. Between group analyses (LCn-3 PUFA vs. gender) showed that both DHA and DPA were significantly less effective in males compared with females. EPA was equally effective in reducing platelet aggregation in both groups. These findings show that significant gender differences exist in platelet aggregation in response to various LCn-3 PUFA treatments.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ] Wuxi Fishery College, Nanjing Agriculture University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China
                [2 ] Key Laboratory of Genetic Breeding and Aquaculture Biology of Freshwater Fishes-Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China
                [3 ] Sino-US Cooperative International Laboratory for Germplasm Conservation and Utilization of Freshwater Mollusks, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China
                [4 ] Cumberland River Aquatic Center, Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America
                Shanghai Ocean University, CHINA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Contributors
                ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3658-6691, Role: Conceptualization, Role: Data curation, Role: Formal analysis, Role: Investigation, Role: Methodology, Role: Software, Role: Writing – original draft, Role: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curation, Role: Formal analysis, Role: Methodology, Role: Software, Role: Writing – original draft, Role: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curation, Role: Formal analysis, Role: Methodology, Role: Software
                Role: Data curation, Role: Formal analysis, Role: Methodology
                Role: Conceptualization, Role: Data curation, Role: Formal analysis, Role: Investigation, Role: Methodology, Role: Supervision, Role: Writing – original draft, Role: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysis, Role: Methodology, Role: Resources
                Role: Formal analysis, Role: Investigation, Role: Methodology, Role: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysis, Role: Investigation, Role: Software, Role: Visualization
                Role: Conceptualization, Role: Data curation, Role: Formal analysis, Role: Investigation, Role: Methodology, Role: Supervision, Role: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                15 February 2018
                2018
                : 13
                : 2
                PONE-D-17-36321
                10.1371/journal.pone.0192292
                5813935
                29447194
                © 2018 Wen et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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                Figures: 6, Tables: 4, Pages: 19
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                Funding
                Funded by: Central Public-interest Scientific Institution Basal Research Fund, CAFS
                Award ID: 2016GH10
                Award Recipient : ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3658-6691
                Funded by: Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China
                Award ID: BK20161145
                Award Recipient : ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3658-6691
                Funded by: Central Public-interest Scientific Institution Basal Research Fund, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, CAFS
                Award ID: 2017JBFM03, 2015JBFM02
                Award Recipient : ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3658-6691
                This study was supported by the Special Scientific Research Funds for Central Non-profit Institutes, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences (Grant number: 2016GH10), Special Scientific Research Funds for Central Non-profit Institutes of Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences (Grant number: 2017JBFM03, 2015JBFM02) and Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant number: BK20161145). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
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                Biology and Life Sciences
                Developmental Biology
                Metamorphosis
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                Fish Metamorphosis
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