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      Beliefs, Knowledge, Implementation, and Integration of Evidence-Based Practice Among Primary Health Care Providers: Protocol for a Scoping Review

      , BSN, MNSc 1 , , 1 , , RN, PhD 1
      (Reviewer), (Reviewer)
      JMIR Research Protocols
      JMIR Publications
      evidence-based practice, primary healthcare, primary healthcare providers, beliefs, knowledge, implementation

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          The adoption of evidence-based practice (EBP) is promoted because it is widely recognized for improving the quality and safety of health care for patients, and reducing avoidable costs. Providers of primary care face numerous challenges to ensuring the effectiveness of their daily practices. Primary health care is defined as: the entry level into a health care services system, providing a first point of contact for all new needs and problems; patient-focused (not disease-oriented) care over time; care for all but the most uncommon or unusual conditions; and coordination or integration of care, regardless of where or by whom that care is delivered. Primary health care is the principal means by which to approach the main goal of any health care services system: optimization of health status.


          This review aims to scope publications examining beliefs, knowledge, implementation, and integration of EBPs among primary health care providers (HCPs).


          We will conduct a systematic scoping review of published articles in the following electronic databases, from their start dates until March 31, 2017: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) via PubMed (from 1946), Embase (from 1947), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; from 1937), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; from 1992), PsycINFO (from 1806), Web of Science (from 1900), Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) database (from 1998), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE; from 1996), Trip medical database (from 1997), and relevant professional scientific journals (from their start dates). We will use the predefined search terms of, “evidence-based practice” and, “primary health care” combined with other terms, such as, “beliefs”, “knowledge”, “implementation”, and “integration”. We will also conduct a hand search of the bibliographies of all relevant articles and a search for unpublished studies using Google Scholar, ProQuest, Mednar, and WorldCat. We will consider publications in English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese.


          The electronic database searches were completed in April 2017. Retrieved articles are currently being screened, and the entire study is expected to be completed by November 2017.


          This systematic scoping review will provide a greater understanding of the beliefs, knowledge, implementation, and integration of EBPs among primary HCPs. The findings will inform clinical practice and help to draw a global picture of the EBP research topics that are relevant to primary care providers.

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          Most cited references40

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          Synthesising qualitative and quantitative evidence: a review of possible methods.

          The limitations of traditional forms of systematic review in making optimal use of all forms of evidence are increasingly evident, especially for policy-makers and practitioners. There is an urgent need for robust ways of incorporating qualitative evidence into systematic reviews. In this paper we provide a brief overview and critique of a selection of strategies for synthesising qualitative and quantitative evidence, ranging from techniques that are largely qualitative and interpretive through to techniques that are largely quantitative and integrative. A range of methods is available for synthesising diverse forms of evidence. These include narrative summary, thematic analysis, grounded theory, meta-ethnography, meta-study, realist synthesis, Miles and Huberman's data analysis techniques, content analysis, case survey, qualitative comparative analysis and Bayesian meta-analysis. Methods vary in their strengths and weaknesses, ability to deal with qualitative and quantitative forms of evidence, and type of question for which they are most suitable. We identify a number of procedural, conceptual and theoretical issues that need to be addressed in moving forward with this area, and emphasise the need for existing techniques to be evaluated and modified, rather than inventing new approaches.
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            Community health workers: integral members of the health care work force.

            As the US health care system strives to function efficiently, encourage preventive and primary care, improve quality, and overcome nonfinancial barriers to care, the potential exists for community health workers to further these goals. Community health workers can increase access to care and facilitate appropriate use of health resources by providing outreach and cultural linkages between communities and delivery systems; reduce costs by providing health education, screening, detection, and basic emergency care; and improve quality by contributing to patient-provider communication, continuity of care, and consumer protection. Information sharing, program support, program evaluation, and continuing education are needed to expand the use of community health workers and better integrate them into the health care delivery system.
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              Evidence-based practice in physiotherapy: a systematic review of barriers, enablers and interventions.

              Despite clear benefits of the Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) approach to ensuring quality and consistency of care, its uptake within physiotherapy has been inconsistent.

                Author and article information

                JMIR Res Protoc
                JMIR Res Protoc
                JMIR Research Protocols
                JMIR Publications (Toronto, Canada )
                August 2017
                01 August 2017
                : 6
                : 8
                : e148
                [1] 1 School of Health Sciences, HES-SO Valais/Wallis Department of Nursing Sciences University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Western Switzerland Sion Switzerland
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Filipa Pereira filipa.pereira@ 123456hevs.ch
                Author information
                ©Filipa Pereira, Mireille Salvi, Henk Verloo. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 01.08.2017.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR Research Protocols, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on http://www.researchprotocols.org, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.

                : 21 March 2017
                : 11 May 2017
                : 2 June 2017
                : 20 June 2017

                evidence-based practice,primary healthcare,primary healthcare providers,beliefs,knowledge,implementation


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