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      A Scoping Review of National Policies for Healthy Ageing in Mainland China from 2016 to 2020

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          Summary

          There remains limited literature to facilitate understanding of healthy ageing-related policies in China over the last five-year policy planning cycle. This study aims to characterise all relevant policies and identifies the policy gaps from a health system perspective. A scoping review framework was used. A thorough search for healthy ageing-related policies was performed on the websites of all government ministries affiliated with the Chinese State Council. Essential information was extracted and mapped to an integrated framework of the World Health Organization's Health System Building Blocks and the Chinese 13 th Five-Year Plan for Healthy Ageing. A total of 12471 policy documents were identified, while 99 policy documents were included. There were 14 ministries involved in the generation of policies, but multisectoral collaboration between the ministries remained limited. National Health Commission and Ministry of Civil Affairs were the leading ministries. Promoting the integration of medical services and older people care was most frequently addressed within these policies. Applying the health system perspective, governance and financing were often addressed, but there were limited policies on other components of the health system. The findings of this study support four policy recommendations: (1) to enhance multisectoral collaboration in policy development; (2) to strengthen health system building blocks, including healthcare workforce, service delivery, health information, and medical products and technologies; (3) to establish a consolidated policy system centered on the national healthy ageing plan; (4) to formulate a national implementation work plan to promote an integrated health care model for older people.

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          Most cited references24

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          PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR): Checklist and Explanation

          Scoping reviews, a type of knowledge synthesis, follow a systematic approach to map evidence on a topic and identify main concepts, theories, sources, and knowledge gaps. Although more scoping reviews are being done, their methodological and reporting quality need improvement. This document presents the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews) checklist and explanation. The checklist was developed by a 24-member expert panel and 2 research leads following published guidance from the EQUATOR (Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research) Network. The final checklist contains 20 essential reporting items and 2 optional items. The authors provide a rationale and an example of good reporting for each item. The intent of the PRISMA-ScR is to help readers (including researchers, publishers, commissioners, policymakers, health care providers, guideline developers, and patients or consumers) develop a greater understanding of relevant terminology, core concepts, and key items to report for scoping reviews.
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            The primary health-care system in China

            China has made remarkable progress in strengthening its primary health-care system. Nevertheless, the system still faces challenges in structural characteristics, incentives and policies, and quality of care, all of which diminish its preparedness to care for a fifth of the world's population, which is ageing and which has a growing prevalence of chronic non-communicable disease. These challenges include inadequate education and qualifications of its workforce, ageing and turnover of village doctors, fragmented health information technology systems, a paucity of digital data on everyday clinical practice, financial subsidies and incentives that do not encourage cost savings and good performance, insurance policies that hamper the efficiency of care delivery, an insufficient quality measurement and improvement system, and poor performance in the control of risk factors (such as hypertension and diabetes). As China deepens its health-care reform, it has the opportunity to build an integrated, cooperative primary health-care system, generating knowledge from practice that can support improvements, and bolstered by evidence-based performance indicators and incentives.
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              A research agenda for ageing in China in the 21st century (2nd edition): Focusing on basic and translational research, long-term care, policy and social networks

              Highlights • Covered broad fields of ageing in China: In addition to an update of the statistics of ageing and disease burden, we include basic and translational research, long-term care, policy and social networks; • Provided more detailed numerical updates of the ageing challenges in China (4 Figures, plus one summary figure of Fig. 5). • Some new features of the aging-related challenges which were not mentioned in the 1st edition, are included, e.g., oral ageing and STDs in the elderly in China; and • A new and independent section on immune ageing, covering viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, AIDS, Influenza and Pneumonia in the Chinese elderly. We also mentioned the COVID-19-induced death in the Chinese elderly.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Lancet Reg Health West Pac
                Lancet Reg Health West Pac
                The Lancet Regional Health: Western Pacific
                Elsevier
                2666-6065
                28 May 2021
                July 2021
                28 May 2021
                : 12
                : 100168
                Affiliations
                [1 ]The George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
                [2 ]National Centre for Non-Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China
                [3 ]School of Sociology and Population Studies, Renmin University of China, Beijing, China
                [4 ]Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
                [5 ]School of Population Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
                [6 ]School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
                [7 ]The George Institute for Global Health at Peking University Health Science Centre, Beijing, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Maoyi Tian, The George Institute for Global Health at Peking University Health Science Centre, Room 011, Unit 2, Tayuan Diplomatic Office Building No. 14 Liangmahe Nan Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100600, P.R.China, Telephone: +86 10 8280 0577. mtian@ 123456georgeinstitute.org.cn
                Article
                S2666-6065(21)00077-8 100168
                10.1016/j.lanwpc.2021.100168
                8356098
                34527965
                8325f532-df5f-45ef-b346-6898e1ea0eea
                © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 2 March 2021
                : 15 April 2021
                : 30 April 2021
                Categories
                Review

                healthy ageing,policy,china,scoping review
                healthy ageing, policy, china, scoping review

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