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      Heavy Metal Risk Management: Case Analysis

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          Abstract

          To prepare measures for practical policy utilization and the control of heavy metals, hazard control related institutions by country, present states of control by country, and present states of control by heavy metals were examined. Hazard control cases by heavy metals in various countries were compared and analyzed. In certain countries (e.g., the U.S., the U.K., and Japan), hazardous substances found in foods (e.g., arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury) are controlled. In addition, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) recommends calculating the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of individual heavy metals instead of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) to compare their pollution levels considering their toxicity accumulated in the human body. In Korea, exposure assessments have been conducted, and in other countries, hazardous substances are controlled by various governing bodies. As such, in Korea and other countries, diverse food heavy metal monitoring and human body exposure assessments are conducted, and reducing measures are prepared accordingly. To reduce the danger of hazardous substances, many countries provide leaflets and guidelines, develop hazardous heavy metal intake recommendations, and take necessary actions. Hazard control case analyses can assist in securing consumer safety by establishing systematic and reliable hazard control methods.

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          National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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            Twenty years of the German Environmental Survey (GerES): human biomonitoring--temporal and spatial (West Germany/East Germany) differences in population exposure.

            The German Environmental Surveys (GerESs) are nationwide population studies, which have repeatedly been carried out in Germany since the mid-1980s. The subjects were representatively selected from the regional registration offices with regard to age, gender and community size. The first survey for adults (GerES I) was carried out in 1985/1986 (West Germany) followed by GerES IIa in 1990/1991 (West Germany) and GerES IIb in 1991/1992 (East Germany). In GerES II children were also included to some extent. In 1998, the third GerES for adults was conducted in both parts of Germany (GerES III). The current survey 2003/2006 (GerES IV) is focussing exclusively on children. A 1-year pilot study was conducted in 2001-2002 to collect information on parameters influencing the response rate and to test the suitability of the different instruments intended to be used for the main study. The main goal of the surveys is to analyse and document the extent, distribution and determinants of exposure to environmental pollutants of the German general population. Three main instruments of investigation were comprised in GerES: human biomonitoring (HBM), monitoring of the domestic environment, and collecting information on exposure pathways and living conditions via questionnaires. This paper is focussed on the general design of the GerESs, the trend over time and spatial differences (West Germany and East Germany) for HBM data on arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These substances have been determined in blood and/or morning urine of adults and children. All GerESs have been conducted in close connection with the National Health Interview and Examination Surveys performed by the Robert Koch-Institute, Berlin.
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              Cadmium, mercury and lead in medicinal herbs in Brazil.

              Samples of herbal medicine used in Brazil were analyzed, after nitric digestion, for the content of cadmium, mercury and lead, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Fifteen samples of ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo biloba), 13 of celastraceae (Maytenus ilicifolia), 14 of cascara buckthorn (Rhamnus purshiana), 13 of eggplant (Solanum melongena), 15 of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), 13 of Brazilian ginseng (Pffafia glomerata), 17 of centella asiatic (Hydrocotyle asiatica), 13 of guarana (Paullinia cupana), 12 of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) and five samples of chlorella (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) were analyzed. Cadmium, mercury and lead were not detected (limit of quantifications of 0.20, 0.01 and 2.0 mg/kg, respectively) in any sample of artichoke, eggplant and guarana. Cadmium was found in samples of the other medicinal herbs at levels up to 0.74 microg/g and mercury up to 0.087 microg/g. Three samples of horse chestnut contained 153, 156 and 1480 microg Pb/g, while the highest concentration found in the other samples analyzed was 22 microg Pb/g. The estimated lead intake through the consumption of horse chestnut reached 440% of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI), and might be of concern to consumers if the medicine was taken on a long-term basis. Cadmium and mercury exposure through the herbal medicines does not appear to be of health concern.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Toxicol Res
                Toxicol Res
                ksot
                Toxicological Research
                The Korean Society of Toxicology
                1976-8257
                September 2012
                : 28
                : 3
                : 143-149
                Affiliations
                [1 ]College of Health Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-703, Korea
                [2 ]Risk Analysis Research Department, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Osong 363-951, Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Dalwoong Choi, College of Health Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-703, Korea E-mail: dwlove@ 123456korea.ac.kr
                Article
                toxicr-28-143
                10.5487/TR.2012.28.3.143
                3834422
                24278603
                833704e3-1faf-423f-a824-ce57b93a5c66
                Copyright ©2012, The Korean Society of Toxicology
                History
                : 25 June 2012
                : 28 June 2012
                : 29 June 2012
                Categories
                Articles

                hazardous substances,risk management,case analysis,heavy metal

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