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      Postoperative Endophthalmitis Caused by Cutibacterium (Formerly Propionibacterium ) Acnes: Case Series and Review

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          We report the clinical features, treatment strategies and outcomes in a series of patients with infectious endophthalmitis after cataract surgery caused by Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes), formerly known as Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). This retrospective case series includes six eyes of six patients with chronic postoperative endophthalmitis caused by culture-proven C. acnesfrom December 2010 to July 2019 at a University referral center. All patients underwent prior cataract extraction with intraocular lens (CE/IOL) implantation. The mean time between cataract surgery and the microbiologic diagnosis of endophthalmitis was 7.4 ± 5.2 months (range 1.5–17 months). The average time from obtaining the specimen to culture positivity was 7.7 ± 4.4 days (range 3–15 days). Three eyes (50%) presented with hypopyon and three eyes (50%) presented with prominent keratic precipitates without hypopyon. Presenting visual acuity ranged from 20/25 to 2/200. Initial treatments included intravitreal antibiotics alone ( n = 2), pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with partial capsulectomy and intravitreal antibiotics ( n = 3), and pars plana vitrectomy with IOL removal and intravitreal antibiotics ( n = 1). Follow-up treatments included IOL removal ( n = 2), intravitreal antibiotics ( n = 1), and topical antibiotics ( n = 1). The best-corrected visual acuity at last follow-up was 20/70 or better in all patients. In a literature review, the clinical features and treatment outcomes for all case series of delayed-onset postoperative endophthalmitis caused by C. acnes( n = 120) are listed . A definitive cure (the absence of recurrent inflammation) was achieved in 100% of patients that underwent IOL removal, in 77% of those that underwent PPV/partial capsulectomy and intravitreal antibiotics, and in 18% of cases treated with intravitreal antibiotics alone. Endophthalmitis after CE/IOL caused by C. acnesis characterized by slowly progressive intraocular inflammation and has a protracted course from surgery to microbiologic diagnosis. Visual outcomes are generally favorable, but IOL explantation may be necessary for definitive cure.

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          The natural history of cutaneous propionibacteria, and reclassification of selected species within the genus Propionibacterium to the proposed novel genera Acidipropionibacterium gen. nov., Cutibacterium gen. nov. and Pseudopropionibacterium gen. nov.

          The genus Propionibacterium in the family Propionibacteriaceaeconsists of species of various habitats, including mature cheese, cattle rumen and human skin. Traditionally, these species have been grouped as either classical or cutaneous propionibacteria based on characteristic phenotypes and source of isolation. To re-evaluate the taxonomy of the family and to elucidate the interspecies relatedness we compared 162 public whole-genome sequences of strains representing species of the family Propionibacteriaceae. We found substantial discrepancies between the phylogenetic signals of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and our high-resolution core-genome analysis. To accommodate these discrepancies, and to address the long-standing issue of the taxonomically problematic Propionibacterium propionicum, we propose three novel genera, Acidipropionibacterium gen. nov., Cutibacterium gen. nov. and Pseudopropionibacterium gen. nov., and an amended description of the genus Propionibacterium. Furthermore, our genome-based analyses support the amounting evidence that the subdivision of Propionibacterium freudenreichii into subspecies is not warranted. Our proposals are supported by phylogenetic analyses, DNA G+C content, peptidoglycan composition and patterns of the gene losses and acquisitions in the cutaneous propionibacteria during their adaptation to the human host.
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            Biofilm formation by Propionibacterium acnes is associated with increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and increased production of putative virulence factors.

            Propionibacterium acnes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, a common disorder of the pilosebaceous follicles. Recently, it was suggested that P. acnes cells residing within the follicles grow as a biofilm. In the present study, we tested the biofilm-forming ability of several P. acnes strains in a microtiter plate model. We also evaluated the resistance of biofilm-grown P. acnes towards antimicrobial agents commonly used in the treatment of acne and the production of putative virulence factors. Our results indicate that P. acnes can form biofilms in vitro. The results also show that sessile P. acnes cells are more resistant to various commonly used antimicrobial agents than planktonic cells. In addition, sessile cells produce more extracellular lipases as well as significant amounts of the quorum-sensing molecule autoinducer-2.
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              Diffusion of rifampin and vancomycin through a Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm.

              Using an equilibrium dialysis chamber, we evaluated the penetration of vancomycin, rifampin, or both through a staphylococcal biofilm to simulate treatment of an infected biomedical implant. A biofilm of ATCC 35984 (slime-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis; vancomycin MIC and MBC, 1 and 2 micrograms/ml, respectively; rifampin MIC and MBC, 0.00003 and 0.00025 micrograms/ml, respectively) was established on the inner aspect of the dialysis membrane (molecular mass exclusion, 6,000 kDa). Serum containing vancomycin (40 micrograms/ml), rifampin (20 micrograms/ml), or a combination of both was introduced into the inner chamber of the dialysis unit (in direct contact with the biofilm), and serum alone was added to the outer chamber. Rifampin and vancomycin concentrations in both chambers were determined over a 72-h period. In the absence of rifampin, the concentration of vancomycin in the outer chamber exceeded the MBC for the organism after 24 h, and the MBC increased to nearly 8.0 micrograms/ml by 72 h, demonstrating that therapeutic levels of vancomycin can penetrate a staphylococcal biofilm. However, viable bacteria were recovered from the biofilm after 72 h of treatment with no apparent increase in the MIC or MBC of vancomycin. Similarly, concentrations of rifampin exceeding the MBC were detected in the outer chamber after 24 h of treatment, but viable organisms were recovered from the biofilm after 72 h of treatment. In this case, the rifampin MBCs for surviving organisms increased from 0.00025 to > 128 micrograms/ml. The combination of agents prevented the development of resistance to rifampin, improved the perfusion of vancomycin through the biofilm, and decreased the penetration of rifampin but did not sterilize the membrane. These observations provide evidence that bactericidal levels of vancomycin, rifampin, or both can be attained at the surface of an infected implant. Despite this, sterilization of the biofilm was not accomplished after 72 h of treatment.

                Author and article information

                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG
                January - April 2021
                07 January 2021
                : 12
                : 1
                : 1-10
                aDepartment of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA
                bShenzhen Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Shenzhen Eye Hospital, Jinan University, Shenzhen, China
                Author notes
                *Harry W. Flynn Jr, Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 900 NW 17th Street, Miami, FL 33136 (USA), HFlynn@med.miami.edu
                510208 PMC7879283 Case Rep Ophthalmol 2021;12:1–10
                © 2021 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 10
                Case Report


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